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Chapter 14

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Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

Chapter 14: Aggression, Altruism, and Moral Development Aggression: behaviour with the intent to harm -hostile aggression: goal is to harm victim -instrumental aggression: harm is means to an end (access to objects, space or privileges) -infants: beginnings of instrumental aggression -preschoolers: verbal aggression replaces physical aggression, usually instrumental -childhood: more amicable settlements, slight increase in hostile aggression, condone retaliatory aggression Sex differences: -boys more physically and verbally aggressive than girls (parenting, toysm themes of play, relation aggression increases in girls during adolescence, antisocial conduct increases in boys during adolescence -fairly stable attribute -proactive aggressors: use aggression to solve problems, believe aggression will pay off -reactive aggressors: hostile aggression, suspicious of others, others deserve harsh treatment Dodge’s Social Information Processing Model 1. encode social cues 2. interpret social cues 3. formulate social goals 4. generate problem-solving strategies 5. evaluate effectiveness and choose strategy 6. enact a response -reactive aggressors display a hostile attribution bias (tendency to interpret harm done in an ambiguous situation as intentionally hostile) Bullies -17% bullied, 19% bully -boys more likely to do both -passive victims: socially withdrawn, physically weak, do not provoke aggression, -provocative victims: oppositional, restless, display hostile attributional bias, may be abused at home Altruism: concern for welfare of other, willingness to act on concern -development: coercive tactics decrease compassion, affective explanations increase compassion -toddlers show sympathy/compassion (sharing toys) -rarely make self-sacrificial responses (sharing treasured toy) -altruistic behaviour increases in school years (link between perspective taking and altruism) -social-cognitive and affective contributors: -role taking schools, prosocial moral reasoning, prosocial dilemmas, e empathetic reactions to distress, ability to experience others emotions -empathy and altruism -sympathetic empathic arousal (mediator of altruism, parental influence through modelling, discipline techniques, link strongest for older children, felt responsibility hypothesis -cult
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