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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Summary & Terms

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Ian Mac Donald

CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY From Conception to Birthy Prenatal development is divided into 3 phases germinal period or period of the zygote lasts about 2 weeks from conception y The implanted in the wall of the uterusuntil the zygote or blastocyst is y The inner layer of the blastocyst becomes the embryo y The outer layer forms the amnion chorion placenta and umbilical cordsupport structures that help to sustain the developing prenatal organismrdthperiod of the embryo lasts from the beginning of the 3 through 8 week of y The pregnancyo This is the period when all major organs are formed and some have begun to functionthy The period of the fetus lasts from the 9 prenatal week until birtho All organ systems become integrated in preparation for birtho Fetuses move and begin to use organ systems during this period in preparation for after birth o Fetuses attain the age of viability at the beginning of the third trimester usually between 2228 weeks after conceptionEnvironmental Influences on Prenatal Developmenty Teratogens are external agents such as diseases drugs and chemicals that can harm the developing organismTeratogensthat is diseases such as rubella toxoplasmosis syphilis genital y herpes and AIDS drugs such as thalidomide which is no longer available for use diethylstilbestrol DES alcohol and tobacco and environmental in Canada hazards such as radiation and toxic chemicalscan attack a developing embryo or fetus interfering with growth and causing birth defectsy Teratogenic effects are worst when a body structure is forming usually during the period of the embryo and when the dose of the teratogen is highy Teratogenic effects can be altered by the postnatal environment through rehabilitation efforts Some teratogenic effects like DES are not apparent at birth but become apparent later in a childs life y Maternal characteristics can influence prenatal development and birth outcomes Pregnant women who are malnourished particularly during the third trimester may deliver a preterm baby who may fail to survive Folic acid supplements can help to spina bifida and other birth defects prevent y Malnourished babies are often irritable and unresponsive interfering with positive developmental outcomesy Pregnant women under severe emotional stress risk pregnancy complicationsy Complications are also more likely among women over 35 and teenage pregnant women who lack adequate prenatal care ChildbirthThe Perinatal Environment y Childbirth is a 3step process
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