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Chapter 12

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Psychology 2042A/B
Scott Wier

Child Psychology Chapter 12 (Pg. 389-395) Adolescent Substance Use Disorders  The risks include increased mortality and morbidity related to impaired driving, unsafe sexual practices, aggression, and similar concerns  The abuse of such substances has physical implications and may produce symptoms that mimic other psychopathological behaviours  Substance Use Disorders (SUDs): Disorders that occur during adolescence and include substance dependence and substance abuse, which result from the self-administration of any substance that alters mood, perception, or brain functioning.  Whereas almost all abused substances can lead to psychological dependence, some also extend to physical dependence  Physical dependence include tolerance and withdrawal  Substance Dependence: A diagnosis of an adolescent (or adult) who must show a maladaptive pattern of substance use for at least 12 months, accompanied by three or more significant clinical signs of distress tolerance (the need for increased amounts to achieve intoxication), withdrawal (cognitive and physiological changes upon discontinuation of the drug), and other indices of compulsive use. Substance dependence is also characterized as with or without physiological dependence (i.e., with or without evidence of tolerance or withdrawal).  Substance Abuse: In contrast to substance dependence, this diagnosis involves one or more harmful and repeated negative consequences of substance use over the last 12 months. Because substance dependence is the more serious diagnosis, a diagnosis of substance abuse is not given if an individual meets criteria for substance dependence.  Substance abusing adolescents experience withdrawal symptoms, their physiological dependence and symptoms are less common than the same among adults  Adolescents are more likely to show cognitive and affective features associated with substance abuse and/or withdrawal  SUDs among youths also differ from those of adults in terms of their parent use, which is likely a function of the restrictions on availability  These influences affect the expression and features of the SUDs in ways that differ from adults Prevalence and Course  Alcohol remains the most prevalent substance used, and abused by adolescents, cigarettes are second and marijuana is third  During the last decade there has been an increase in illicit drug use and a decrease somewhat in the number of adolescent using hallucinogens and inhalants  Higher rates of substance abuse problems are reported among youths with histories of other mental health problems, or with involvement in the child welfare, or juvenile justice systems Age of Onset  One of the most widely supported risk factors for the onset of substance use problems and subsequent disorders is age of first use  In general, researchers find that alcohol use before the age of 14 is a strong predictor of subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence especially when early drinking is followed by rapid escalation in he quantity of alcohol consumption Sex and Ethnicity  Rates of diagnosis for SUDs no longer differ significantly between boys and girls  Ethnicities with higher substance abuse problems are Native/Indian, Whites, Mixed, Latino, Black, Asian Course  Rate of substance use peak around late adolescence and then begin to decline during young adulthood  Most adolescent risk and problem behaviours co-occur, so an indication of one problem is often a signal that others may be happening or on their way  Substance use lowers inhibitions, reduces judgment, and increases the risk of physical harm and sexual assault  Girls who report dating aggression are 5 time more likely to use alcohol than girls in non-violent relationships, boy are 2.5 times more likely  More likely to have sexual intercourse at an earlier age, have more sexual partners, and have a greater risk of sexually transmitt
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