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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - ONLINE

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Professor
Richard Brown
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych 2042A Chapter 10: Language and Learning Disabilities language and learning disorders have had increasing impact on individual lives because of escalating demands for certain kinds of skills and learning in our industrial and technologically sophisticated world. these disabilities are associated with many known medical, genetic and behavioural syndromes assumed that disturbances occur relatively early and is not readily explained by social factors A Bit of History: Unexpected Disabilities, Unmet Needs two major themes have left a strong mark on the eld one is scientic and clinical interest in understanding individuals who display specic decits that appear discrepant with their intelligence or other abilities the other is an emphasis on the need to improve services to young people exhibiting such decits in the latter 1880s, Broca described the inability of his adult patients to express themselves verbally while maintaining the capacity to comprehend what other said soon after, Wernicke documented brain lesions in patients who had problems in understanding language but otherwise did not exhibit language and cognitive impairment brain damage in adults was linked to behavioural symptoms such as specic speech problems, learning difculties, and inattention mid-1900s, several kinds of interventions were recommended 1963 - representatives from several organizations met at a symposium sponsored by the Fund for Perceptually Handicapped Children. the children of their concern exhibited a variety of deciencies that were related to neurological dysfunction conferees organized into what is today called the Learning Disabilities Association of America Denitional Concerns to understand the problems of denition we turns to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 this has been reentitled the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). denition: specic learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, in which the disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. the term includes conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia the term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage general denition that refers to disorder in basic psychological processes 1 the denition excludes children whose disabilities are due to several factors that could be expected to cause learning problems. may be also difcult to establish underachievement due to emotional disturbance, lack of motivation or cultural/economic disadvantage. denitional problems of learning/language disabilities have led to different prevalence rates, incomparability of groups chosen for research purposes, and varying standards to determine whether children will receive special education services. Identifying Specic Disabilities there is a lack of agreed-upon criteria to identify learning disabilities most often they have not targeted underlying psychological processes IQ-achievement discrepancy common way to identify disabilities has been by a discrepancy between the individuals intellectual ability and specic achievement level assumed that when a specic disability exists, performance of measures of general ability (IQ tests) will exceed performance of achievement tests of the hypothesized specic impairment a discrepancy of two or more standard deviations between IQ scores and achievement test scores often is employed. (small differences have been acceptable) Below average achievement one way of identifying a youth with a disability is that they are performing below the expected grade level in at least one academic area general problem with this method of identication is that a large discrepancy is more serious for a younger than an older child: being 2 years behind is more serious for a 3rd grader than a 6th grader poor achievement can also be identied by comparing the childs performance with those peers of the same age on standardized tests of language, reading, writing, and arithmetic (this varies from school districts and researchers) criterion is usually set to the range of one to two standard deviations below the mean on standardized tests IQ achievement discrepancy have been challenged in numerous ways argued that IQ tests rely strongly on language abilities, so that overall intelligence may be underestimated in children with language or learning disabilities no way to discriminate between decits of a child and of poor instruction question about exclusion of children considered to be slow learners, that is, for whom a discrepancy is not found nonetheless, intelligence often is considered by requiring that the child with low achievement also exhibits average intelligence, or an IQ that does not fall below the score that typically denes mental retardation (about 70) Response to Intervention (RTI) an approach in determining disability depends on exposing children to intervention prior to diagnosing them with a disability rationale is that children whose response to valid intervention is poorer than that of their peers can be identied as having a learning disability 2 this approach includes all children and eliminates poor instruction as a cause of the childs performance RTI approach moves children though a series of interventions of increasing intensity those children who do not respond to the more intensive interventions can be labelled with learning disabilities can is eligible for special educational services limitations of RTI: some view it as replacing identication of learning disabilities by IQ-achievement discrepancy; others see it as only one component of a broader evaluation concern that including all students shifts the conceptualization of LD as a specic disability to a more general disability of low achievement. Language Disabilities study and treatment of language impairments has been both independent and integrated with the study and treatment of learning disabilities - reading, writing, and arithmetic language disabilities have historically been known as aphasia, a term that means loss of language due to brain damage or dysfunction but when the disability is a developmental matter, aphasia, does not really t terms have been used such as specic language impairment (LI/SLI), specic language disabilities, or language disorders Normal Language Development is a system of communication based on sounds that are combined into words and sentences to represent experience and carry meaning basic components of language include phonology - sounds of language and combining them (basic sounds are called phonemes) alphabet has 26 letters, which singly or in combinations are called graphemes morphology - formation of words with prexes and sufxes to give meaning syntax - grammar; grammar is composed of morphology and syntax semantics - meanings in language pragmatics - use of language in specic contexts Receptive language has to do with the comprehension of messages sent by others - this is usually acquired earlier than expression Expressive language concerns the production of language, that is, sending messages. during the rst year, infants can distinguish and produce sounds that are not part of the native language that surrounds them innate ability to process language sounds is shaped through experience by 2 years of age, most children have gone from saying single words to two-word utterances, to longer strings of words set in meaningful phrases or sentences parents of 3 year olds perceive that they are talking with someone who is no longer a baby - infancy as incapable of speech, usually over by age 2 3 by age 7, basics of language are acquired - growth goes up to adolescents and adulthood DSM Classication and Diagnosis problems can exist in any one of the basic components of language possible to classify disabilities in several ways - distinction is often made between those who have problems with expressive language and those who have problems with receptive language 3 disorders of primary interest: Phonological Disorder - to be diagnosed, a child must fail to display developmentally appropriate and dialect-appropriate speech sounds Expressive Disorder - scores from standardized measures of expressive language are substantially below scores for nonverbal intelligence and receptive language - language expression is inferior to the pers
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