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Chapter 6

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Psychology 2042A/B
Scott Wier

ConductProblems December-31-11 1:39AM DESCRIPTION OF CONDUCT PROBLEMS - Conduct problems and antisocial behaviour are terms used to describe a wide range of age-inappropriate actions and attitudes of a child that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the personal or property rights of others - Whining, swearing, and temper tantrums to vandalism, theft, and assault - Usually grew up with physical abuse, neglect, poverty, or exposure to criminal activity - not an excuse, but an important backdrop CONTEXT, COSTS, AND PERSPECTIVES - Context - Antisocial behaviours (hit, kick, break things, lie, resist authority) appear and then decline during normal development But, children who are the most physically aggressive in early childhood maintain their relative standing over time - Several important features of antisocial behaviours in the context of normal development: Antisocialbehaviours vary in severity, from minor disobedience to fighting Someantisocial behaviours decrease with age (e.g. Disobeying at home), whereas others increase with age and opportunity (e.g . Hanging around kids who get into trouble) Antisocialbehaviours are more common in boys than girls during childhood but this difference narrows in adolescence - Social and economic costs - Most costly health problem in NA - Early, persistent, and extreme pattern of antisocial behaviour occurs in only about 5% of children Cause a lot of harm, accounting for over 50% of all crime in the US and 30 -50% of clinic referrals - 20%of all mental health expenditures in the US are attributable to crime - The lifetime costs to society for one youth to leave high school for a life of crime and substance abuse has been estimated to be ~2 million dollars - PERSPECTIVES - Legal - Conduct problems are defined as delinquent or criminal acts - Juveniledelinquency - describes children who have broken a law, anything from sneaking into a movie without a ticket to homicide - The minimum age of responsibility is 12 in most states/provinces - Noclear boundaries exist between delinquent acts that are a reaction to environmental conditions (high crime neighbourhood) and those that result from factors within the child (impulsivity) - A legal definition of delinquency may result from one or two isolated acts, whereas a mental health definition usually requires the child to display apersistent pattern of antisocial behaviour Only some children who meet the legal definition of delinquency will also meet the definition for a mental disorder - Psychological - Conduct problems fall along a continuous dimension of externalizing behaviour, which includes a mixture of impulsive, overactive, aggressive, and rule-breaking acts - Children at the upper extreme, are considered to have conduct problems - Externalizing dimension consists of two related but independent subdimensions: Rule-breaking behaviour - Running away, setting fires, stealing, skipping school, using alcohol and drugs, vandalism Aggressive behaviour - Fighting,destructiveness, disobedience, showing off, being defiant, threatening others, disruptive - Two additional independent dimensions of antisocial behaviour: Over-covert - Ranges from overt visible acts (fighting) to covert hidden acts (lying/stealing) - Overt children = negative, irritable, resentful, high levels of familial conflict - Covert children = less social, anxious, suspicious of others, little family support - Most with conduct problems display both overt and covert behaviours - Frequent authority conflicts, severe family dysfunctions, poorest long-term outcomes Destructive-non-destructive - Ranges from destructive acts (animal cruelty, physical assault) to non-destructive behaviours (arguing, irritability) - Fourcategories of conduct problems 1. Covert-destructive - property violations 2. Overt-destructive - aggression - High risk for later psychiatric problems and impairment in functioning 3. Covert-nondestructive - status violations 4. Overt-nondestructive - oppositional behaviour - Psychiatric - Conduct problems are defined as distinct mental disorders based on DSM symptoms - Disruptivebehaviour disorders - persistent patterns of antisocial behaviour, represented by the categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) - Public health - Blends the legal, psychological, and psychiatric perspectives with public health concepts of prevention and intervention - Goal is to reduce the number of injuries, deaths, personal suffering, and costs associated with youth violence DSM-IV-TR: DEFINING FEATURES - OPPOSTIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD) - Display an age-inappropriate recurrent pattern of stubborn, hostile, and defiant behaviours - Appears by age 8 - Extremely negative effects on parent-child interactions - Children with ODD also have a risk of developing secondary mood, anxiety, and impulse-control disorders- CONDUCT DISORDERS - Display a repetitive and persistent pattern of severe aggression and antisocial acts that involve inflicting pain on others or interfering with rights of others through physical and verbal aggression, stealing, or committing acts of vandalism - Key features of CD: Severe antisocial behaviours - fires, suffocation Co-occurring problems such as ADHD, academic deficiencies, poor peer relations Families use child-rearing practices that usually contribute to the problem - harsh punishment, own problems/stresses Out of control - parents feel helpless - CD and age of onset - Age of onset DOES make a difference - Childhood-onset conduct disorder - display at least one symptom of CD before age 10 More likely to be boys Showmore aggressive symptoms Account for a lot of illegal activity Persist in their antisocial behaviour over time - Adolescent-onset conduct disorder - don't display symptoms before age 10 Equal likelihood of boys/girls Not as severe as childhood onset Less likely tocommit violent offenses Less likely topersist in their antisocial behaviour as they get older - CD and ODD - Symptoms of ODD typically emerge 2 to 3 years before CD symptoms 6 yrs old for ODD; 9 yrs old for CD May be precursors for CD - but most don't progress their ODD symptoms into CD - But CD cases are almost always preceded by ODD - they also continue to display ODD symptoms - CD and antisocial personality disorder - Antisocial personality disorder (APD) - a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others, as well as involvement in multiple illegal behaviours - 40%of children with CD go on to develop APD as young adults - Adults with APD may also display psychopathy -a pattern of callous, manipulative, deceitful, and remorseless behaviour Signs of lack of conscience typically occur between 3-5 yrs old - Adolescents with CD = less likely to show affective empathy/embarrassment - Callous and unemotional interpersonal style is characterized by.. Lack of guilt Noempathy Noemotion Narcissism Impulsivity - Alsodisplay a lack of behavioural inhibition, greater number and variety of CD symptoms,more frequent contact with police, stronger parental history of antisocial personality disorder
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