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Chapter 9

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B
James M Olson

Final exam 2070 Chapter 9 11/5/2012 7:30:00 PM Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination Prejudice- a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held (possible to be positive, but in social psych its referred to be negative Discrimination- negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their group membership (can be positive but in social psych its referred to negative) Genocide- an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Stereotypes- individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes (can be positive or negative) Implicit Attitudes- individuals automatic- and often unconscious- evaluations of a target old fashioned blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination many majority groups (whites) have ambivalent (conflicted) feelings towards minorities (aboriginals and Asian Canadians) Aversive racism- (new or modern kind of prejudice)- people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of a minority when the circumstances are made for negative treatment to be justifiable, providing an excuse (perhaps even to themselves) for discrimination reports of blatant prejudice decreased but little change has been made in discriminatory behavior Study when participants had to judge an ambiguous participants if qualifications were strong, both time periods recommended him whether he was white or black when the applications were weak, both did not recommend him whether he was white or black when qualifications were AMBIGOUS, participants recommended the white applicant more often than the black applicant (77% vs. 40% in 1999), (75% vs. 50% in 1989) discrimination occurred when the circumstances masked it majority groups members continue to harbor prejudice against minority groups, but either lie about it or even deny it to themselves Implicit Association Test (IAT)-used to assess respondents’ automatic, implicit attitudes toward minority groups has been used as a physiological measure of prejudice (as well as Facial EMG) Cognitive Sources -prejudice is the byproduct of “normal” human thinking processes -stereotypes “efficiently” provide us with information about target persons that can guide behavior and help us make rapid inferences -stereotypes are individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes (doctors are intelligent, hockey players are strong and aggressive) Anglophones & Francophones -When you categorize a plant as poising ivy (going beyond the information given) it will let you know that its dangerous and to stay away, same with rcmp officer, lets you know that they are armed and they can help you The downside of stereotypes are oversimplication & Negativity -we assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people (out- group homogeneity effect), with reality being that humans are NOT uniform or predicatable -Poison ivy is ALWAYS dangerous, apples ALWAYS grow on trees, fire is ALWAYS hot -lawyer are NOT ALWAYS wealthy, women are NOT ALWAYS emotional -oversimplified and inaccurate -often unvfavorable in tone WHY? -One reason may be that people believe that the perceivers group are competing for desired resources (jobs, food) -bad mood may lead perceivers to interpret their stereotypes of some minority group more negatively -people may be unfamiliar or with the stereotype group and therefore feel anxious or uncomfortable (people may label their anxiety as dislike) erroneous views will be CORRECTED if the perceiver remains open to new information -Unfortunately, humans are NOT open or unbiased Stereotypes distort information processing in several ways 1. affects what the perceiver notices (most likely looking for information that confirms the stereotype) 2. very unexpected information can also grab our attention Experiment involving a criminal case, where people where more likely to judge the convict guilty if his name was CARLOS RAMIREZ rather than ROBERT JOHNSON, in fact; -they recalled a higher percentage of evidence that was used to support the guilty verdict -also gave more extreme judgments of guilt therefore minority group judged more harshly than a member of the majority Stereotypes guide interpretation -actions that are ambiguous will be interpreted as consistently with expectations -behaviors that do not necessarily support the stereotype will strengthen it (neutral or ambiguous comments can lead to the interpretation of the person being conceited actions were rated as more threatening and less playful when performed by a black model than when performed by a white model (and surprisingly was equally strong between white and black participants) shooting pedestrian experiment (ONLY WHITE PARTICIPANTS); participants had to respond very quickly -WHITE participants were FASTER to judge correctly that black targets were armed and to judge white targets were armed, in contrast they judged slower that black targets were unarmed than white targets -when confronted with an unarmed target, more likely to shoot if black than white, -when confronted with an armed target, less likely to shoot white and more likely to shoot black another experiment recruited both black and white participants and the same pattern of bias was displayed. (black people are even more likely to shoot their own) the skin color reflected knowledge of a cultural stereotype rather than prejudice both black and white children tended to choose white dolls as toys white skin is more “valued” than black skin shooting of Amadou Diallo -reaching in his pocket to get wallet, no criminal record -police shot him when they believed he was reaching for a gun -second-degree murder charges but all charges were acquitted (set free) Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 1) perceivers stereotype or expectancy about a target influences the perceivers behavior towards a target 2) the perceivers behavior toward the target then elicits the expected behavior from the target Princeton university study (job application) (ALL WHITE PARTICIPANTS) -white interviewers treated white and black applicants differently -white applicants lasted longer in the interviews -more :immediacy” (eye contact, forward body lean), while interviewing white applicants expecting members of a group to be unfriendly might actually produce unfriendly actions from them If targets are aware of someone’s expectancy for them, they may work to disprove it; especially when negative -most cases, targets are unaware that perceivers have strong expectancies -sometimes people behave consistently with a negative stereotype simply to maintain a smooth interaction Stereotype threat- when individuals are aware that someone expects them to do poorly, their attempt to disconfirm that expectancy can sometimes actually hurt their performance “choke” Subliminal Priming Procedure- a method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing word or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant Participants were flashed (50/50) either pictures of stereotypes of black people, or they were neutral. -participants that had the black stereotype rated the man as more hostile. (hostility was activated indirectly) -exposure to words related to the stereotype of black americans increased the perceived hostility of ambiguous behavior for both prejudiced and unprejudiced participants (given in real life, a person encountering a black person will almost certainly activate the stereotype of blacks Implicit intergroup Bias- distorted judgments about members of a group based on a stereotype which can occur without the persons awareness Other research shows that low-prejudiced white particiaptns showed no evidence whatsoever of implicit intergroup bias against blacks, whereas high-prejudiced white participants did show this bias Evidence shows that unprejudiced individuals actually seek out information to disconfirm common stereotypes -implicit intergroup bias CAN be reduced by deliberate attempts to be open- minded (instructing participants to be “as unprejudiced as possible” significantly reduced intergroup bias) Meta Stereotypes – refers to a person beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group (e.g., a white Canadian may believe that aboriginals hold a negative stereotype against whites) -meta-stereotypes influence peoples expectations about their interactions with members of the outgroup (whites assume that their group is being viewed negatively tend to anticipate unpleasant interactions with members of the outgroup – self-fulfilling prophecies) -prejudice can result from negative emotions such as frustration, anger, and hostility -prejudice may also satisfy basic motives such as the need to evaluate the self positively 4 THEORIES Scapegoat Theory- Oldest explanation -people become frustrated during difficult economic times and vent their frustration on weak, scapegoat targets (dominant group lashing out at subordinate groups) -there is little to no direct role in the frustration -correlation between the number of lynching’s of black Americans in the deep south and the price of cotton, as prices went down, lynching’s went up (NEGATIVE CORRELATION) Hitler in the 1930’s, roused anger against Jews in the Third Reich by claiming that they had too much economic power and blaming them for the impact of the worldwide depression on Germany (he provided an excuse for some Germans to vent their frustrations) Realistic Group Conflict Theory- when groups in a society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, leading to prejudice -scare resources (jobs, housing, political power, health care) -claims for land (Kashmir) -claims over natural resources (First nations) -clearest examples of immigrants accused to be competing directly with current residents for jobs and social benefits right-wing groups like skinheads and associated “hooligans” have denounced immigration and promoted hatred of immigrants people also believe that immigrants bring with them a set of values and customs that threaten the status quo, in turn the cultural threat produces intergroup anxiety (not economic competition but symbolic) -studies show that threats to symbolic beliefs were associated with negatie attitudes toward gay men and lesbians Robber’s Cave Experiment- study of 11 year old boys at a summer camp, boys told they’d be competing in sporting events and the winning teams would receive some very nice prizes -almost immediately after, the two groups expressed substantial hostility and prejudice towards other group (even stole) Social Identity Theory -positive emotional benefit of derogating out-groups: Feeling good about the self, or self-enhancement -feeling superior to another person can be gratifying, because it can indirectly confirm ones own wealth (not only on a personal level, can be at a group level, my group is better than YOUR group) -one important component of peoples identity is their group memberships (deciding that our ingroup is better than an out-group is one way to enhance our self-esteem minimal group paradigm- assigning individuals to groups on the basis of trivial features -even when these groups are formed in meaningless, arbitrary ways, people show in-group favoritism when the Hoosiers (Indiana University) basketball team won a game, participants reported higher self-esteem and made more optimistic predictions about their own future performance, rather when the lost -thus when the in-group proved to be superior, people felt better about themselves The Eye of The Storm- teacher in grade 3 gave her grade 3 all-white class a firsthand experience of prejudice -seperated into blue and brown eyes -one day she made blue eyes superior, next day she made brown eyes superior -each day, the children in the “superior” group changed dramatically from their normal personalities (arrogant, insulting, condescending) Integrated Threat Theory- theory proposing that prejudice results from 4 types of threats; realistic threat, symbolic threats, threats from intergroup anxiety, and threats from negative stereotypes -hypothesizes that these four threats arouse aversive feelings (anxiety, frustration, etc.) leading to prejudice 1) Realistic Threats- competition for jobs, political power, scarce resources 2) Symbolic Threats- perceived threats to the in-groups important attitudes, beliefs, and values 3) Threats from Intergroup Anxiety- people feel uncertain and anxious about interacting with members of the out-group (lack of familiarity) 4) Threats from Negative Stereotypes- people believe that members of the out-group posses undesirable characteristics (aggressiveness, untrustworthiness) -can be applied equally well to understanding either the attitudes of the majority group towards the minority, or vice-versa -the above was tested with aboriginal and whites, the last three were fully supported, however (realistic threats) predicted white respondents attitudes towards aboriginals, but not aboriginal attitudes toward whites (aboriginal were not fearful for jobs, or political power) archival research from 1928 -1986 -during times of high economic or political threat, authoritarian churches tend to reject out-groups (nonbelievers) and provide simple, clear answers for all problems (gods punishment) -increased threats were associated with larger memberships in fundamentalist churches -but NOT in liberal churches Sexism- prejudice and discrimination directed against women because of their gender -problem isn’t that men hate women but rather men do not always treat women as their equals sexism has become more sophisticated than it used to be Neosexism- modern and more subtle form of sexism, which includes beliefs that women are no longer disadvantaged, together with antagonism toward women’s demands for special treatment -belief that men think their own interests are best served by a hierarchical system in which men have more power than women men hold ambivalent (both positive and negative) attitudes toward women -they LIKE women and want to “protect” the women in their lives -they dislike feminists Ambivalent sexism Inventory- measure of stereotyped attitudes toward women, composed of; Benevolent sexism- positive but paternalistic attitudes toward women Hostile sexism- negative attitude toward women who violate the traditional stereotype for women -results show that levels of benevolent and hostile sexism were negatively correlated with the measures of gender equality. More sexism = less axess to women for economic and political arenas Gender Stereotypes -many people believe that the sex
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