Some CH.4 notes for 2070a/b

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Ch. 4 - Social Perception: Perceiving the Self and Others
Attributions: Causal judgements abt why event or behaviour occurred.
-Judgments abt causes of ppl’s actions/outcomes are made constantly & have implications on our
own behaviour.
-Attribution theories are models attempting to delineate processes underlying causal judgements.
One of best attribution theories portray ppl as...
Intuitive scientists: Untrained scientists who try to make causal judgements in rational scientific manner
->Labelled as covariation model of attribution: ppl try to determine if a particular kind of behav-
iour is correlated with a person, a situation, or some combination of persons and situations.
-Ppl have multiple observations of the target person.
False consensus effect: Assuming others share same attitudes/behaviours to a greater extent than is
actually the case.
-We tend to interact mainly with others who agree with us.
-We want to believe that others agree with us (motivational).
-Individuals rely on their knowledge of plausible causes in situations when they make causal judgments
abt a person based on just one observation.
-Perceivers look to see if plausible external causes are present and make causal judgments based this
Rules of Attribution:
Discounting principle: perceived role of cause is reduced (discounted) if other plausible causes are
Augmentation principle: perceived role of cause is increased (augmented) if other factors that work
against the behaviour are present.
Correspondence bias: Assuming that ppl’s actions & words reflect their personality, attitudes, or other in-
ternal factor, rather than external or situational factors (i.e natural response to situational pressures).
-Aka fundamental attribution error.
-Assumptions are spontaneous and automatic.
-Example: Overreliance on personality traits to understand behaviour
4 Causes of Correspondence Bias:
1. We overlook or are unaware of situational factors that influence other ppls behaviour
2. We underestimate power of situational factors
3. Process of taking situational factors into account requires cognitive resources, which might not always
be available.
4. Cultural influences. E.g., western cultures believe we can accomplish anything if we work hard enough.
Nonverbal behaviour: actions and cues that communicate meaning aside from direct verbal statements.
-Observers rely more on nonverbal cues to interpret a message’s meaning.
-Informative to true feelings (emotions) b/c they’re not completely under voluntary control
-E.g., facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, tone of voice, shivering, blushing.
-Children cannot interpret emotions via nonverbal cues accurately. Rely on verbal content instead
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