Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Corpus Luteum, Paramesonephric Duct, Cervix

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
Chapter 5: sex hormones, sexual differentiation, and
menstruation 10/16/2012 8:38:00 PM
Sex Hormones:
Prenatal period: the time from conception to birth
Hormones: chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands
into the bloodstream
o Effects are rapid
Testosterone: a hormone secreted by the testes in the male (and
also present at lower levels in the female
Androgens: the group of male sex hormones, one of which is
testosterone
Estrogens: the group of female sex hormones
Progesterone: a female sex hormone secreted by the ovaries
Pituitary gland: a small endocrine gland located on the lower side of
the brain below the hypothalamus; the pituitary is important in
regulating levels of sex hormones
Hypothalamus: a small region of the brain that is important in
regulating many body functions , including the functions of the sex
hormones
o Below the pituitary
Sex hormones in males
Testosterone is released by the testes and maintains secondary sec
characteristics like beard growth
Follicle stimulating hormone: a hormone secreted by the pituitary,
it stimulates follicle development in females and sperm production
in males
Luteinizing hormone: a hormone secreted by the pituitary, it
regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in the female
and testosterone production in the male
Gonadotropin releasing hormone: a hormone secreted by the
hypothalamus that regulates the pituitary secretion of gonad-
stimulating hormones
HPG axis: hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, the negative
feedback loop that regulates sex hormone production
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o When the testosterone hormone falls, the loop turns on and
increases the amount of testosterone production
Inhibin: a substance secreted by the testes and ovaries that
regulates FSH levels
o Uses a negative feedback loop
Sex hormone systems in females
The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
o Also responsible for maintain the mucous in the vaginal wall
o Also responsible for stopping the production of bone, this is
why women are generally smaller than men
The increase of estrogen inhibits the production of GnRH and LH
Pituitary also produces oxytocin and prolactin
o Oxytocin is responsible for the ejaculation of milk
Endocrine disrupters: chemicals found in the environment that
affect the endocrine system as well as the biological functioning and
behaviour of animals, including humans
The menstrual cycle
Phases of the menstrual cycle:
o Follicular phase: day 5-13
The first phase of the menstrual cycle, beginning just
after menstruation, during which an egg matures in
preparation for ovulation
o Ovulation phase: day 14
Release of an egg from the ovaries; the second phase
of the menstrual cycle
o The luteal phase: day 15-28
the third phase of the menstrual cycle, following
ovulation
corpus luteum: the mass of cells of the follicle
remaining after ovulation it secretes progesterone
o menstruation phase: day 1-5
the fourth phase of the menstruation cycle, during
which the endometrium of the uterus is sloughed off in
the menstrual discharge
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if the egg is fertilized about 6 days later in arrives in the
uterus where it is nourished and grows
the corpus luteum produces progesterone for about 10 -
12 days if pregnancy doesn’t occur the amount of
hormones rapidly decreases
o length and timing of the cycle
generally about 20-36 days
average: 28 days
all women are different, there are many factors that
effect how long a women’s cycle is
Other cyclic changes
o Two other changes are the cervical mucus cycle and the basal
temp cycle
One function of the mucus is to protect the entrance of
the cervix
As estrogen increases the mucus gets thicker
When the LH production begins the mucus becomes
more watery making it easier for sperm to move
through
Basal temperature drop at the ovulation phase
Menstrual problems
o Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation
o Prostaglandins: chemicals secreted by the uterus that cause
the uterine muscles to contract; they are a likely cause of
painful menstruation
The best way to get rid of these symptoms is to
masturbate- takes away the congestion
o Endometriosis: a condition in which the endometrium grows
abnormally outside of the uterus; the symptom is unusually
painful periods with excessive bleeding
o Amenorrhea: the absence of menstruation
Prenatal sexual differentiation
Sex chromosomes
o XX-female
o XY-male
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Document Summary

Chapter 5: sex hormones, sexual differentiation, and menstruation. Prenatal period: the time from conception to birth. Hormones: chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream: effects are rapid. Testosterone: a hormone secreted by the testes in the male (and also present at lower levels in the female. Androgens: the group of male sex hormones, one of which is testosterone. Estrogens: the group of female sex hormones. Progesterone: a female sex hormone secreted by the ovaries. Pituitary gland: a small endocrine gland located on the lower side of the brain below the hypothalamus; the pituitary is important in regulating levels of sex hormones. Hypothalamus: a small region of the brain that is important in regulating many body functions , including the functions of the sex hormones: below the pituitary. Testosterone is released by the testes and maintains secondary sec characteristics like beard growth.

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