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Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12: Cognitive Notes.docx

2 Pages

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Psychology 2135A/B
Patrick Brown

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Chapter 12: Problem Solving Classifying Problems - Greeno suggests 3 types of problems: arrangement, inducing structure and transformation Arrangement - Arrangement problems: a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specific criterion - Anagram: a problem that requires rearranging a string of letters to form a word - Skills include… o Fluency in generating possibilities (generate a lot of possibilities and discard unpromising ones) o Retrieval of solution patterns (ability to solve anagrams) o Knowlegde of principles that constrain the search (knowing pairs of letters that don’t work together) - Gestalt psychologists argued that discovering the correct organization usually occurred as a flash of insight o Insight: sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem - Hard to solve problem if: o Unnecessarily constrains o Functional fixedness: the tendency to use an object in a typical way Inducing Structure - Inducing-structure problems: a problem that requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations - Series extrapolation: a problem that requires finding a pattern among a sequence of items to continue the sequence in the same pattern - Analogy problem: a four-term problem that requires finding the answer that completes the relation: A is to B as C is to D - Inducing structure problems require identifying relations among the components and fitting the relations together in a pattern Transformation - Transformation problems: initial state, goal state, and a sequence of operations for changing the initial state to the goal states. - Differ from other two problems because they provide the goal state - Uses means-end analysis: eliminates differences between the initial and goal states Newell and Simon’s Theory Objective and Method - Simulation programs: a computer program that attempts to reproduce the operations used by people to carry out various tasks - Advantage: memory and strategy can be defined in precisely stated instruction and guarantees that no steps have been left unspecified if a computer can solve the problem - Succuessful program provides… o Measure of sufficiency: demonstration that the instructions in a computer program are capable of solving a problem  HOWEVER, DOES NOT GUARANTEE PEOPLE WILL SOLVE PROBLEMS IN SAME WAY - Used verbal protocols: record of verbalized thought processes o Limited in sample size Theoretical Assumption - Performance on a problem-solving task are influenced by capacity, storage time, and retrieval time of STM and LTM - Both limited capacity of STM and the time required to store new information in LTM can greatly influence the efficiency of a human problem solver - What is important is how effectively one can discover a plan that avoids an incorrect path - Search space: set of choices at each step in solving the problem as determined by the problem - Problem space: set of choices eva
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