Textbook Notes (369,082)
Canada (162,376)
Psychology (4,934)
Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12: Cognitive Notes.docx

2 Pages
88 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2135A/B
Professor
Patrick Brown

This preview shows 80% of the first page. Sign up to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 12: Problem Solving Classifying Problems - Greeno suggests 3 types of problems: arrangement, inducing structure and transformation Arrangement - Arrangement problems: a problem that requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specific criterion - Anagram: a problem that requires rearranging a string of letters to form a word - Skills include… o Fluency in generating possibilities (generate a lot of possibilities and discard unpromising ones) o Retrieval of solution patterns (ability to solve anagrams) o Knowlegde of principles that constrain the search (knowing pairs of letters that don’t work together) - Gestalt psychologists argued that discovering the correct organization usually occurred as a flash of insight o Insight: sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem - Hard to solve problem if: o Unnecessarily constrains o Functional fixedness: the tendency to use an object in a typical way Inducing Structure - Inducing-structure problems: a problem that requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations - Series extrapolation: a problem that requires finding a pattern among a sequence of items to continue the sequence in the same pattern - Analogy problem: a four-term problem that requires finding the answer that completes the relation: A is to B as C is to D - Inducing structure problems require identifying relations among the components and fitting the relations together in a pattern Transformation - Transformation problems: initial state, goal state, and a sequence of operations for changing the initial state to the goal states. - Differ from other two problems because they provide the goal state - Uses means-end analysis: eliminates differences between the initial and goal states Newell and Simon’s Theory Objective and Method - Simulation programs: a computer program that attempts to reproduce the operations used by people to carry out various tasks - Advantage: memory and strategy can be defined in precisely stated instruction and guarantees that no steps have been left unspecified if a computer can solve the problem - Succuessful program provides… o Measure of sufficiency: demonstration that the instructions in a computer program are capable of solving a problem  HOWEVER, DOES NOT GUARANTEE PEOPLE WILL SOLVE PROBLEMS IN SAME WAY - Used verbal protocols: record of verbalized thought processes o Limited in sample size Theoretical Assumption - Performance on a problem-solving task are influenced by capacity, storage time, and retrieval time of STM and LTM - Both limited capacity of STM and the time required to store new information in LTM can greatly influence the efficiency of a human problem solver - What is important is how effectively one can discover a plan that avoids an incorrect path - Search space: set of choices at each step in solving the problem as determined by the problem - Problem space: set of choices eva
More Less
Unlock Document

Only 80% of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit