Encoding: acquiring information; translated into a form that other cognitive processes can use. Storage: encoded information held in storage for later retrieval. Retrieval: calling to mind of previously stored information. Memory enters into almost every cognitive activity. Baddeley (1990): case of clive wearing; musician and broadcaster; could not remember things for more than a few minutes; thought to recover consciousness. Neath and surprenant (2003): said plato compared memory to aviary and wax tablet. Memory compared to cave, empty cabinet, body in need of exercise, telephone (1950), computer. Theoretical approach is studying memory according to length of time information is stored. Modal model of memory: emphasizes existence of different memory stores (atkinson and. Sensory memory: store incoming sensory information for very brief amounts of time. Short-term memory (stm): attended information held for 20 or 30 seconds. Long-term memory (ltm): information stored for longer periods of time. Possible separate sensory memories for each sensory modality.