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Chapter 1-4

Chapter 1-4

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Psychology 2220A/B
Jennifer Hoshooley

Neurons cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signalsNeuroscience the scientific study of the nervous systemThe case of Jimmie Gunable to form new memories could only account for past memories and would lose memory within a few seconds His sensory motor and cognitive abilities were intact Thinking creatively thinking in productive unconventional ways outside of the box Thinking on evidence rather than on widely accepted viewsClinical pertaining to illness or treatment Two aspects of clinical implications are studying the diseased or damaged brain versus the normal brain having relevance for treatment of brain disordersEvolutionary Perspective thinking of the environmental pressures that likely led to the evolution of our brains and behaviour often leads to important biopsychological insightsComparative approach trying to understand biological phenomena by comparing them in different speciesNeuroplasticity the brain is a changeable plastic organ that continuously in response to the individuals genes and experiencesBiopsychology the scientific study of the biology of behaviourNeuroanatomy the study of the structure of the nervous systemNeurochemistry the study of chemical bases of neural activityNeuroendocrinology the study of interactions between the nervous system and the endocrineNeuropathology the study of nervous system disordersNeuropharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on neural activityNeurophysiology the study of the functions and activities of the nervous systemAdvantages of using humans as experimental subjects are following instructions report subjective experiences cheaper having HUMAN brains Advantages of animals brains are simpler than human subjects have a comparative approach the study of biological processes by comparing different species possible to conduct research on laboratory animals that are not possible with human subjects Experiments method used to study causationBetweensubjects design a different group of subjects tested under each conditionWithinsubjects design the same group of subjects under each conditionIndependent variable the variable being manipulatedDependent variable variable that is measured by the experimenter to assess the effect of the independent variableConfounded variable a variable other than the independent variable that could affect the dependent variable usually unnoticedCoolidge effect a copulating male who becomes incapable to continuing to copulate with one sex partner can often recommence copulating with a new sex partnerLordosis the archedback rumpup taildiverted posture of female rodent sexual receptivityQuasiexperimental studies studies of groups of subjects who have been exposed to the conditions of interest in the real worldCase studies studies that focus on a single case or subjectGeneralizability the degree to which their results can be applied to other casesPure research research motivated primarily by the curiosity of the researcher solely for the purpose of acquiring knowledgeApplied research research intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankindPure research is more vulnerable to the moods of politicians as the funding may not be there if there is no interest of the wealthyMotor neurons neurons that control musclesHypothalamus a small neural structure at the base of the brainCorpus callosum the large neural pathway that connects the left and right halves of the brainDivisions of biopsychology1Physiological psychology2Psychopharmacology3Neuropsychology4Psychophysiology5Cognitive neuroscience6Comparative psychologyPhysiological psychology the division of biopsychology that studies the neural mechanisms of behaviour through the direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experimentssurgical and electrical methods of brain manipulation are the most common Usually on laboratory animals and on the basis of pure researchPsychopharmacology focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behaviour with drugs with philosophies similar of physiological psychologyNeuropsychology the study of psychological effects of brain damage in human patients Deals almost exclusively with case studies and quasiexperimental studies with brain damage resulting from disease accident or neurosurgery Cerebral cortex outer layer of cerebral hemispheres most likely to be damage by accident or surgery
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