Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Psychology (4,731)
Rod Martin (26)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3- Classification- Abnormal Psych (2310).pdf

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

CHAPTER #3-CLASSIFICATIONAND DIAGNOSIS ▯ WHY DO WE NEEDACLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR MENTALDISORDERS? - Classification is a fundamental activity of all humans -The ability to categorize allows scientists to better identify and understand various phenomena -Assessment: Aprocedure through which info is gathered systematically in the evaluation of a condition; this assessment procedure yields info that serves as the basis for diagnosis -Amental health assessment may include interviews with the patient or the patient’s family, medical testing, psychophysiological or psychological testing, and the completion of self-report scales or other report rating scales -Adiagnostic system provides a number of criteria for a disorder and if a certain number of these criteria or indications are present, the person is diagnosed ▯ THE PERFECT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM - Would classify disorders on the basis of a study of presenting symptoms (patterns of behaviors), etiology (history of the development of the symptoms and underlying causes), prognosis (future development of this pattern of behaviors), and response to treatment -There would be no overlap between categories -We would have the cure for each diagnostic category -Unfortunately, practicalities prelude us from being able to systematically observe and measure many aspects of functioning in large numbers of people, in a controlled way, over long periods of time ▯ CHARACTERISTICS OF STRONG DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS - Reliability: Adiagnostic system must give the same measurement for a given thing every time - Inter-rater reliability: Extent to which 2 clinicians agree on the diagnosis of a particular patient - Validity: Determined by whether a diagnostic category is able to predict behavioral and psychiatric disorders accurately - Concurrent validity: Ability of a diagnostic category to estimate an individual’s present standing on factors related to the disorder but not themselves part of the diagnostic criteria - Predictive validity: Ability of a test to predict the future course of an individual’s development ▯ Functions of a Good Classification System - 1. Organization of clinical information —> It provides the essentials of a patient’s condition coherently and concisely -2. Shorthand communication —> It enhances the effective interchange of info, by clearly transmitting important features of a disorder and ignoring unimportant features -3. Prediction of natural development —> It allows the accurate short-term and long- term prediction of an individual’s development -4. Treatment recommendations —> It allows accurate predictions of the most effective interventions -5. Heuristic value —> It allows the investigation and clarification of issues related to a problem area, it also enhances theory-building -6. Guidelines for financial support —> It provides guidelines to services needed (including payment of caregivers) ▯ THE HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION OF MENTALDISORDERS - Modern efforts at classification owe much to Kraeplin’s work in the 19th century - In 1948, the International List of the Causes of Death incorporated mental illness and became the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD) -The original DSM (I and II) were highly unsatisfactory (brief and contained vague descriptions) - There were only 3 main categories (organic brain syndromes, functional disorder, and mental deficiency) with 106 smaller categories - Greatly influenced by psychoanalytic theory, focused on internal unobservable processes, were not empirically based, and contained few objective criteria -In 1980, the DSM III was introduced as well as the DSM III-R (revised) - Field trials were conducted to improve reliability - 12,500 patients and 550 clinicians were involved in these trials - A-theoretical: Moved away from endorsing any one theory of abnormal psychology, becoming more pragmatic - Operational definitions were provided - Polythetic: An individual could be diagnosed with a certain subset of symptoms without having to meet all the criteria - Multiaxial: Diagnosticians were required to provide substantial patient information, evaluating and rating patients on 5 different axes or areas of functioning -The DSM-IV conducted field trials in 70 sites and evaluated some 6000 patients -The current DSM (DSM-IV-TR) contains 407 separate categories and is widely used in Canada and the US ▯ DSM-IV-TR:AMULTIAXIALAPPROACH ▯ AXIS I Clinical Disorders -Records the most obvious disorders -Psychological disorders that have been recognized for centuries because of their bizarre nature (e.g., schizophrenia) or the difficulty they pose in everyday life (e.g., mood disorders) -Reflects what the patient has ▯ AXIS II Personality Disorders - Focuses on the presence of generally less severe long-term disturbances -Describes who the patient is -These individuals can function in jobs and relationships, albeit with significant difficulty ▯ AXIS III General Medical Conditions - Covers any medical disorder that might be relevant to understanding or managing the case -Medical disorders may cause psychological disorders or they may affect future development or treatment ▯ AXIS IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems - Collects info on the patient’s life circumstances, recognizing that individuals live within a social milieu and that stressful social circumstances might contribute to symptom onset -Although 2 people’s disgnosis may be the same, responses to treatment can be very different ▯ AXIS V GlobalAssessment of Functioning - Measures how well a person is able to cope with the circumstances related to his.her problems -Can be indicative of the need for treatment and of the person’s coping mechanisms and can assist in planning intervention ▯ CATEGORIES OF DISORDER IN DSM-IV-TR - DSM-IV-TR groups all the disorders listed on eitherAxis I,Axis II into 15 categories on the basis of broad similarities in how they affect people, or how the people suffering from them may appear to the clinician ▯ Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, orAdolescence - Intellectual, emotional, and physical disorders that begin before maturity -Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: - Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Individual displays maladaptive levels of inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity - Oppositional defiant disorder: Recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures -Conduct disorder: Children persistently violate societal rules, norms, or the basic rights of others -Separation anxiety disorder: Child becomes excessively anxious over the possibility of separating from parents -Mental retardation/intellectual developmental disorder: Below average intelligence with impairments in social adjustment -Autistic disorder: Child shows severe impediments in several areas of development including social interactions and communications -Learning disorders: Functioning in particular academic skill areas is significantly below average -Motor skills or communication disorders: Developmental problems with coordination of with the reception/expression of language -Feeding and eating disorders: Eating substances that have no nutritional value, such as sand and feces, on a persistent basis -Tic disorders: Body moves repeatedly, quickly, suddenly, and/or uncontrollably -Elimination disorders: The repeated passage of urine or feces at inappropriate times/places ▯ Delirium, Dementia,Amnesia, and Other Cognitive Disorders - Neurocognitive disorders - Dementia: Deterioration of mental capacities, is typically irreversible, and is usually associated withAlzheimer’s disease, stroke, and substance abuse -Amnesiac syndrome: Impairment in memory when there is no delirium or dementia, and is linked to alcohol abuse ▯ Substance-Related Disorders - Brought about by the excessive use of a substance (anything ingested to produce a high, alter one’s senses, or otherwise affect functioning) -Considered a disorder when the use of these substances results in social, occupational, psychological or physical problems -May be unable to control or stop their use (becoming physically addicted) -Alcohol use disorders, opioid use disorders, amphetamine use disorders, cocaine use disorders, and hallucinogen use disorders ▯ Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders - Schizophrenia: Severe debilitation in thinking and perception, suffering from a state of psychosis and often characterized by delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (false perceptions) -Thought disorders: Incoherent speech, loose association (unconnected pieces of thought), inappropriate affect (ex. laughing at a funeral), disorganized behavior (ex. public masturbation) -People in a psychotic state have lost contact with the world and with others ▯ Mood Disorders - Major depressive disorder: Person is extremely sad and discouraged, and displays a marked loss of pleasure in usual activities - Problems sleeping, weight gain/loss, lack energy to do things, have difficulty concentrating, and feel worthless, hopeless, and sometimes suicidal - Mania: Condition in which a person seems extremely elated, more active, and in less need of sleep - Displays flights of grandiosity, and impairment in functioning - Bipolar disorder: Both depression and mania are exhibited - Dysthymia: More chronic low grade depression - Cyclothymia: Person fluctuates between more mild bouts of mania and less severe depressive symptoms ▯ Anxiety Disorders - Excessive fear, worry, or apprehension; excessive fear usually produces maladaptive patterns of avoidance -Phobia: Intense fear of a specific object or situation - Obsessions (recurrent, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors), which when not performed cause overwhelming distress -Acute stress disorder/post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Long-standing anxiety subsequent to extraordinarily traumatic events -Social phobia -Panic disorder -Generalized anxiety disorder ▯ Somatoform Disorders - Physical symptoms that have no known physiological cause but seem to serve a psychological purpose -Somatization disorder: Long history of bodily problems, including symptoms of pain, gastrointestinal function, sexual function, and pseudoeurological symptoms -Conversion disorder: Loss of motor or sensory function (paralysis, blindness) -Pain disorder: Severe, prolonged and unexplained pain -Hypochondriasis: Misinterpre
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2310A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.