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Social Psych Textbook .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2720A/B
Professor
Clive Seligman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter1IntroducingSocialPsychologyWhatIsSocialPsychologyTheScienceofSocialBehaviourSocialpsychologycanbeconsideredthescienceofsocialbehaviourDedicatedtounderstandingthecausesandconsequencesofsocialinteractionsbetweenindividualsorgroupsFormaldefinitionSocialpsychologyisthescientificstudyofhowindividualsthoughtsfeelingsandbehavioursareinfluencedbyotherpeopleFourkeyaspectsofthisdefinition1influencedbyotherpeople2thoughtsfeelingsandbehaviours3individualsperspective4scientificstudy1InfluencedbyotherpeopleThestudyofhowotherpeopleaffectusThepeopleinfluencingusdonthavetobephysicallypresenttodosoimaginedpresenceoractions2ThoughtsFeelingsandBehavioursThoughtscognitionsFeelingsaffectSocialpsychologistsstudyhowindividualsprocessinformationaboutotherpeopleandhowtheystorethisinformationinmemoryAlsoexaminepeoplesfeelingsandemotionsSocialpsychologistsarealsointerestedinexplainingsocialbehaviourUltimategoalistounderstandwhyvariouskindsofactionstowardotherpeopleoccuranddonotoccurieconformityaggressionhelpinganddiscrimination3IndividualsPerspectivePerspectiveofindividualsinasocialsettingSocialpsychologistsbelievethatinordertounderstandititisnecessarytolookattheworldthroughtheactorseyesWhateveryoubelievetheotherpersonsmotivetobeevenifyouareincorrectdetermineshowyoubehaveTounderstandsocialeventsitisimportanttoknowsubjectiveperceptionsofthesituationratherthanthesettingsobjectivefeaturesSocialconstrualshowindividualspersonallyinterpretorperceiveasocialsituationEvenwhenstudyinggroupprocessessocialpsychologistsadopttheperspectiveofindividualmembersofthatgroup4ScientificStudySocialpsychologyisascienceReliedonthedirecttestofideasScientificevidenceisnecessarybeforeaproposalwillbetakenseriouslyCollectingdatatotestpredictionsHowOtherPeopleAffectUsSocialpsychologistshaveshownthatotherpeopleinfluencevirtuallyeveryaspectoflifeincluding1howweinterpretevents2howwefeelaboutourselvesand3howwebehave1HowweinterpreteventsResearchershaveconductedexperimentsinwhichtheyconstructedfakeemergenciesandobservedhowpeoplerespondedwhodidnotknowhowthesituationwasstagedOneimportantreasonthatpeoplefailtointerveneinsituationstheyobserveisthattheyrelyonotherpeopletointerprettheevent2HowwefeelaboutourselvesThisprocessofcomparingourselvestootherpeopletomakejudgmentsaboutourselvesiscalledsocialcomparisonSocialcomparisonoccursallthetimeandhasmanyimplicationsfordailylifeEgseeingpicturesofattractivemembersofthesamesexastheparticipantwillcausehimhertogivethemselveslowerratingsofattractiveness3HowwebehaveThepresenceofotherpeoplecanelicitverydifferentbehaviourthanwouldhaveoccurredifindividualswerealoneEgmobaggressionSomeexplanationsformobaggressionfeelingsofanonymitydeindividualizationpeoplebeingunaccountablefortheiractionswheninalargegroupBewareSocialpsychologyisnotjustcommonsenseThoughourrelationshipswithotherpeoplewelearnalotaboutsocialinteractionandourbeliefsaboutsocialbehaviourareoftencorrectBecauseofthisoverlapbetweensocialpsychologyandintuitionstudentsmaythinkthatsocialpsychologyisjustcommonsensebutthisisnotthecaseEgbirdsofafeatherflocktogetheroroppositesattractbothcommonsenseCommonsenseoftenallowscompetingpredictionsintuitionsarenotalwaysrightandfolkwisdomisoftenvagueandsimplisticreallifeismorecomplicatedPredictingfutureuncertainoutcomesisoftendifficultInadvanceoutcomescanbehardtopredictbutthenoncewelearnabouttheoutcomeitoftenseemsthatitwasobviousweknewitallalongbutthisthinkingisoftenanillusionthingsthatseemobviousinhindsightmaynothavebeeneasilypredictedinforesightHindsightBiasthetendencytothinkthataknownoutcomewasobviousWhyStudySocialPsychologyInordertodevelopaninformedandreasonedapproachtodealingwithsocialproblemsInordertobeaninformedcitizenThesocialengineerneedsabroadunderstandingofthedeterminantsofbehaviourtodesignatrulyeffectivesocialpolicyAlsohelpssolveeverydayproblemsthatwefaceHelptounderstandyourselfandyoursocialworldSocialPsychologysConnectionstoOtherAreasofPsychology1PersonalityPsychologyPersonalitypsychologistsstudytraitsordispositionsthathelptoexplainhumanbehaviourDispositionsareconsistenciesinthoughoractionthatcharacterizeinindividualacrosstimeandsettingsandthatmakehimherdifferentfromotherpeoplePersonalitypsychologistswanttoidentifythedispositionsthataremostusefulfordescribingbehaviouranddifferentiatingbetweenindividualsIncontrastsocialpsychologistswanttounderstandtheimpactofexternalsituationalfactorsonbehaviourHoweversocialpsychologistsstilltakeintoaccountindividualpersonalitytraitsintheirresearchinordertoimprovethepredictionofbehaviour2DevelopmentalPsychologyDevelopmentalpsychologistsstudyagerelatedchangesinhumanabilitiesandbehavioursmoststudychildrenSomeareasofsocialpsychologyalsousethestudyofchildrenaswellasthedevelopmentalchangesinsocialpsychology3CognitivePsychologyCognitivepsychologistsstudyhowthehumanmindworksincludingmemoryinformationprocessingconsciousnessanddecisionmakingThisfieldhasmadeimportantcontributionstounderstandinghowknowledgeisorganizedinmemoryandcommonerrorsinjudgmentanddecisionmakingOneareofoverlapsocialcognitionthestudyofhowinformationaboutpeopleisprocessedandstoredBothfieldsuseexperimentationtotesttheirideas4ClinicalandCounselingPsychologyStudypeoplewhoarehavingdifficultycopingwithlifesdemandsAkaabnormalpsychologyFocusonindividualswhoaresufferingfromapsychologicaloremotionalproblemIncontrastsocialpsychologistsareusuallyinterestedinnormalindividualsbehaviourinsocialsettingsNeverthelessthefieldsoverlapbecausemanyoftheissuesfacedinsocialsettingscanleadtopsychologicalproblems
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