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Chapter 6

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Psychology 2990A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 6-psych and the workplace Achievement motivation theory: the theory of motivation the emphasizes the need to accomplish something to do a good job and to be the best, ppl who have a high degree of the need for achievement derive great satisfaction from working to accomplish some goal and they are motivated to excel in whatever task they undertake Study of motivation: it is important as a consumer because you can be the victim of faulty workers and because you yourself will spend most of your life working and therefore should be motivated to do so David McClelland and his study on business managers: found successful business managers consistently display high need to achieve, regardless of the culture, economic growth of organizations and societies can be related to the level of the achievement need among employees and citizens found 3 major characteristic of people who have a high need to achieve Three characteristics of people with a high need to achieve: the favour work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems, they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate attainable goals and they need continuing recognition and feedback about their progress so that they know how well they are doing Correlations between achievement motivation and financial success: high correlation, and they will be displayed more respect and more receptive to new ideas, better job performance Mastery: developing competence and self-satisfaction through acquiring knowledge and skills Mastery orientation: employees with this strong were ore effective on the job than were those with a strong performance orientation, established higher quality leader-member exchanges 3 dimensions of achievement motivation: perseverance, competition and level of difficulty of controlling the task Needs hierarchy theory: theory of motivation that encompasses physiological, safety, belonging, esteem and self-actualization needs Motivator-hygiene (two factor) theory: theory of motivation that explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms of job tasks and workplace features, two sets of needs motivation needs and hygiene needs Physiological needs: basic human needs like food air ect Safety needs: need for shelter and stability Belonging and love needs: social needs for love affection Esteem needs: need for self-esteem and admiration Self-actualization: need for self-fulfillment motivator needs: internal to the work itself, include nature of job tasks and works responsibility, can be satisfied by stimulating challenging and absorbing work hygiene needs: job dissatisfaction is made by this it relates to promotion and maintenance of health, needs are external to the task of a particular job, include company policy job enrichment: an effort to expand the score of a job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing and evaluating their work, remove some management controls, create natural work environments, feedback job-characteristics theory: theory of motivation that states that specific job characteristic lead to psychological conditions that can increase motivation, performance and satisfaction in employees who have a high growth need. Individual difference in the need for growth Core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback Valence-instrumentality-expectancy (VIE) theory: theory of motivation that states that people can make choices that are based on their perceived expectations that certain rewards will follow if they behave in a particular way, 3 facts; employees must decide whether they expect certain job behaviours, must determine whether that outcome will lead to other outcomes and whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way Process theories: focus on the cognitive processes that are part of the decision making Job Diagnostic survey: measure three aspects of the theory, employees perceptions of the job characteristics, employees level of the growth need, and employees job satisfaction, is a self report survey Equity theory: theory of motivation that states that peoples motivation on the job is influenced by their perceptions of how fairly they are
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