Psychology 3301F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Psychopharmacology, Psychoeducation, Psych

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Chapter 2: Contemporary Clinical Psych
Intro
Clinical psychologists work with individuals, couples, families, groups and organizations
Discuss second touchstone of clinical psychology: professional ethics (1st science based)
Activities of Clinical Psychologists
Majority of psychologists engage in many different professional activities, majority
participate in psychotherapy
On average spend 41.3 percent of their time engaging in intervention (CAD, 2013)
Assessment and Diagnosis
Virtually impossible to be clinical psychologists and not do some form of psych
assessment
Most commonly assessment activities involve evaluating the psych functioning of an
individual or a relationship
Precise nature of assessment activities depends on large on purpose of assessment
o Thus if goal of assessment is to determine eligibility for a service, assessment
a e sole futio of the pshologist’s seie
All liial assessets shae a pia goal of aidig the udestadig of the peso’s
current level of psychosocial functioning
Intervention
Majority of clinical psychologists offer psychotherapy
o 40% of professional time spent to providing psych interventions
wealth of evidence that suggests psych treatments can be effective in treating a wide
range of health problems
majority of people who receive psychotherapy attend less than 10 sessions
1/3 take one or two, fewer than 1/10 attend more than 20 sessions
most commonly reported techniques were to identify or challenge thoughts, relate
thoughts to feelings, focus on affect by validating or labelling emotions, gather info and
guide or direct client
in North America, a cognitive-behavioural approach is the most popular single
orientation among clinical psychologists
o describe it as eclectic
o more likely to spend time providing psychoeducation by informing client about
nature of presenting problem; encourage them to ask questions etc
those in psychodynamic more likely to explore childhood experiences
what do psychologists need to know about psychopharmacology
issue of should they be able to prescribe psychoactive pills
itis ague pshologists’ distitie epetise is i deelopet ad appliatio of
evidence-based assessment and psychological interventions
o express concern that inclusion of adequate training in psychopharmacology
would inevitable come at expense of training in psychological issues
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ude Caada’s pulil fuded sste, likel that fedeal government would have
concerns that additional numbers of practioners eligible to prescribe expensive
psychopharmacological treatments would contribute to mushrooming health care costs
Prevention
prevention services are categorized according to the stage in the course of a disorder at
which they are introduced
primary prevention involves the prevention of a disease or disorder before it actually
occurs
secondary is designed to reduce the recurrence of a disease or disorder that has already
been developed and diagnoses
tetia peetio efes to effots to edue oeall disailit that’s esultig
prevention activities tend to focus on either reducing risk factors or enhancing
protective factors
risk factors: characteristic of an individual or individuals life circumstances that increase
development of a disorder
protective factors are individual or environmental characteristics that lessen the
likelihood of eventually developing a disease or disorder
prevention efforts are usually based in community settings, can be offered in large
Consultation
clinical psychologists often act in the role of consultant
clinical consultation = provision of info advice and recommendations about how best to
assess, understand or treat a client
organizational consultation = services to organized focused on developing prevention or
intervention program
consultation to agencies often fall into one of several categories: needs assessment,
program development, program evaluation, and policy consultation
the program evaluation assesses the extent to which the program was carried out as
intended and extent to which objectives were met
policy consultation (another type of consultation) focuses on determining whether an
age’s poli is oguet ith its mission or consistent with professional standards or
scientific evidence
Research
all clinical psychologists are trained to conduct and evaluate research
in the past much of the research in clinical psychology came from university settings and
was conducted or supervised by clinical psychology faculty members in departments of
psychology or in medical schools
because of the central role that empirical evidence plays, some private practitioners
have also made it a priority to be regularly involved in research settings
clinical psychologists carry out research aimed at improving our understanding of the
nature and causes of conditions as varied as sexual pain disorders, depression in older
adults, disruptive behaviour disorders, etc
Teaching and supervision
full time professors in clinical psych engage in diff types of teaching
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