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Chapter 13

Psychology 1000 Chapter 13 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 1000 Chapter 13 Notes (Behaviour in a Social Context) Social Thinking and Perception  Attributions are judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes. o Personal attributions infer that people’s behaviour is cause by their characteristics o Situational attributions infer that aspects of the situation cause a behaviour  3 types of information determine the type of attribution people make:  When all 3 are high, people make a situational attribution o Consistency o Distinctiveness o Consensus  Fundamental attribution errors is a tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviour  Self-serving bias is the tendency to make related more personal attributions for success and situational attributions for failure o Strength of self-serving biases depends on various factors.  A primacy effect is a tendency to attach more significance to the initial information we learn about a person  A stereotype is a generalized belief about a group or a category of people  A self-fulfilling prophecy is when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act in a way that bring about the way that brings about the expected behaviours, thereby confirming the original impression  An attitude is a positive or negative evaluation reaction towards a stimuli, such as a person, action, object or concept  Theory of planned behaviour is the view that people’s intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour, when subjective norms support the person’s attitudes, and when we believe that the behaviour is under the person’s control  Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance is theory that people strive to maintain consistency in their beliefs and actions, and that inconsistency creates dissonance; unpleasant arousal that motivates people to restore balance by changing their cognitions  Behaviour that is inconsistent with our attitude is called counterattitudinal behaviour  Bem’s self-perception theory is the theory that people make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how people behave  Communicator credibility is how believable the communicator is  There are two routes to persuasion: o The central route to persuasion is when people think carefully about a message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling o The peripheral route to persuasion is when people do no scrutinize a message and are influenced mostly by other factors Social Influence  Social facilitation is an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others  Social norms are shared experiences about how people should think, feel and behave  A social role consists of a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave  Informational social influence is when people follow the opinions and behaviours of others because they believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is ‘right’  Normative social influence is conformity by gaining social acceptance and avoiding social rejection  There are factors that affect conformity o Group size o Presence of a dissenter  Norm of Reciprocity is the expectation that when others treat people well, they should respond in kind  Door-in-the-face technique
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