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# Appendix - Statistics in Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
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Dr.Mike

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Statistics in Psychology Descriptive Statistics (Distribution)  Summarize and describe the characteristics of a set of scores  Frequency Distribution: how many participants received each score  Histogram: bar graph of frequency distribution Measures of Central Tendency  Distribution in terms of a single statistic that represents the sample as a whole  Mode - Most frequent but not the most representative  Mean – average affected by outliers  Median – midpoint of a ranked distribution unaffected by outliers Measures of Variability  Spread of scores in a distribution  Range: difference between highest and lowest scores  Deviation score (x): measures the distance between each score (X) and the mean (M)  Variance: degree of fluctuation of scores around mean (total x / # of x values) o z score – distance from the mean in standard deviation units  normally distributed with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 o Total variance = accounted (independent variables) + not accounted (random, uncontrolled)  Standard deviation (S/SD): Square root of the variance *The best standard deviation is to have in o Low – narrow & peak between high and low o High – flat and more spread out The Normal Curve  Symmetrical bell-shaped curve that represents a theoretical distribution of scores in the population  The mean , median and mode have the same values  68% scores fall in between ±1 standard deviation of the mean  96% scores fall in between ±2 standard deviation  Almost all cases fall in between ±3 standard deviation  Purpose is to estimate the probability a given event wi
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