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Chapter 11

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Psychology 1000

Psychology 1 Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behaviour. Derives from the Latin word meaning “to move” PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION Instinct  An inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus  Have a genetic basis, are found universally among all members of the species, do not depend on learning, and have survival value  Theories faded because there is little evidence to support them  Conducting twin and adoption studies is one way to examine  Modern evolutionary psychologists propose many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings and are expressed through genes o Adaptive significance of behaviour is a key to understanding this behaviour. For example: we are social because it had survival benefits in our ancestors, which were passed on to us. There are more “social genes” in the gene pool which is why there are more social than antisocial people Homeostasis  A state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain, proposed by Walter Cannon  Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system  Drive theory: according to Clark Hull, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension. Drives such as hunger and thirst arise from tissue deficits and provide a source of energy that pushes an organism into action  Hull proposed that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour  Drive theory is less influential than in the past because people often behave in ways that seem to increase rather than reduce states of arousal (skipping meals to lose weight, tension-generating horror movies) Incentive and expectancy theories  Incentives: represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal, in the absence of biological need (studying to get a good grade)—modern incentive theory Psychology 2  An incentive theory of drug use argues that seeking and administering a drug is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drugs effect  Expectancy x value theory (expectancy theory): goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by 2 factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal—often called incentive value. These 2 factors are multiplied, producing the following equation: motivation=expectancy x incentive value  Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment  Intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake—because you find it enjoyable or stimulating  Overjustifcation hypothesis: giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation (ex. Someone who’s hobby was to make jewelry, now gets paid to make it, and enjoys it less) Psychodynamic and humanistic theories  Freud’s psychodynamic theory stated that much of our behaviour results from a never- ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control. Energy from these unconscious desires is disguised and expressed through socially expectable behaviours (being a trial attorney) “dual instinct” model  Todays psychodynamic theories state that along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel  Maslow distinguished between deficiency needs, which are concerned with physical and social survival, and growth needs, which are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential  Need hierarchy: a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  Self-actualization: represents the need to fulfill potential, and it’s the ultimate human motive (critics find this vague)  Self-determination theory: focuses on 2 fundamental psychological needs 1. Competence: human need to master new challenges and perfect skills 2. Autonomy: when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference 3. Relatedness: our desire to form meaningful bonds with others HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION Metabolism: the body’s rate of energy utilization, and about 2/3 of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolism work of body cells  There are short-term signals that starts meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety, and long-term signals based on how much body fat you have  Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs, homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from running low on energy, the set point theory states that we Psychology 3 tend toward one weight, others believe that overtime we may settle into a new weight Signals that start and terminate a meal  A.L. Washburn did an experiment where he swallowed a balloon, which was inflated and hooked up to an amplifying device to record stomach contractions. He pressed a key every time he felt hungry and findings revealed that his stomach contractions corresponded to subjective feelings of hunger  Animals display hunger and satiety even if all nerves from their stomach to their brain are cut, and people who have had their stomach surgically removed for medical reasons continue to feel hunger and “full”  Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations—produces drop-rise glucose pattern  Stomach and intestinal distension are “satiety signals”—stretch and send signals to brain  Stomach doesn’t have to be full to feel satiety—nutrient rich food produces satiety more quickly  Intestines respond to food by releasing hormone called peptides that help terminate a meal  CCK—released into bloodstream by intestines, decreases hunger  Leptin—secreted into bloodstream by fat cells, decreases hunger  Neuropeptide Y—secreted by neurons within the PVN of the hypothalamus, increases hunger Signals that regulate general appetite and weight  Leptin decreases appetite  As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain, where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it—this decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure  “Background” signal—doesn’t make us feel full, increases the potency of other signals that make us feel full. As we gain fat, more leptin is released and satiety signals happen sooner. As we lose fat, less leptin is released and it takes more food to feel satiety  ob gene—normally directs cells to produce leptin—mutations will result in the brain never receiving the signal to “curb your appetite” so people don’t stop eating, and become obese  db gene—normally produces leptin—mutation results in the brain being unable to detect the “curb your appetite” signal/doesn’t respond to leptin Psychology 4  Obese people’s brains do not detect the “curb your appetite” signal but do not have mutations… most of them Brain mechanisms  Lateral hypothalamus (LH): “hunger on” centre  Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): “hunger off” centre  ** Not really hunger on and off centres, some rats couldn’t eat because they had problems swallowing or digesting  Paraventricular nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate of reduce appetite. Integrates short-term and long- term signals  When leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it inhibits the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, and appetite is reduced. When losing fat, less leptin is secreted and therefore neuropeptide Y neurons become more active, increasing appetite Objectification theory: western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would, increasing body shape anxiety and eating disorders Environmental factors influencing how much we eat  Food availability  Food taste and variety  Sights, scents and sounds  We eat more when dining with people than alone  Cultural norms (people in Greece eat later than north Americans)  Comfort (people tend to stick to the foods they know) Obesity  Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue  More than 200 genes identified as possible contributors—usually a combination of genes that produces and increased risk  Contributions to obesity are: inexpensive high fat foods, “getting the best value”, technological advances  High levels of dopamine in the brains “reward pathway” make some people especially sensitive  Obese people have more insulin, which converts glucose to fat, dieting slows basal metabolic rate, some obese people maintain excess wait with fewer calories than people who are gaining weight for the first time—this is why fat people stay fat SEXUAL MOTIVATION Psychology 5  Adults who live with a sexual partner have sex the most, followed by married adults and single adults  Men masturbate and fantasize more than women  More people who HAVE sex partners masturbate than those who don’t  Men have their first experience before women  Premarital sex is more popular now than before, but seems to be changing Physiology of sex  Masters and Johnson did the creepy study  Most people go through a 4-stage sexual response cycle 1. Excitement phase: arousal builds, blood flow increases to arteries in and around the genital organs, nipples and breasts, pooling and causing swelling (this process is called vasocongestion). Penis and clitoris become erect, vagina lubricates, muscle tension increases 2. Plateau phase: respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm 3. Orgasm phase: males—rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surround urethra project semen out of the penis. Females—rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus 4. Resolution phase: males—physiological arousal decreases rapidly and genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition. They then enter the refractory phase during which they can’t have another orgasm. Females—may have 2 or more successive orgasms before the onset of resolution phase (most only have one) Hormonal influences  Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins which in turn affects the rate at which the gonads secret androgens and estrogens  Androgens—the so-called “masculine” sex hormones such as testosterone  Estrogens—the so-called “feminine” sex hormones such as estradiol  Both men and women produce androgens and estrogens  Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics o If genetically male, embryo will form testes. As testes release sex hormones during development, there is enough androgen to produce male genital, reproductive and brain development. Years later, the hypothalamus stimulates an increased released of sex hormones when the male reaches puberty o If genetically female, testes do not form; androgen isn’t produced and female parts form. Years later, the hypothalamus stimulates an increased release of sex hormones from the ovaries on a cyclical basis that regulates the female menstrual cycle Psychology 6  Also have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour beginning at puberty when gonads secret sex hormones o Mature males have a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones and readiness for sex is governed by environmental stimuli o Female animals follow an “estrus” cycle, and are sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion o In humans, normal short-term hormonal fluctuations have relatively little effect on sexual arousability—women may experience sexual desire anytime  In males and females, androgens appear to ha
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