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Chapter 16

Psychology Chapter 16 Review.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders  Behavior o Abnormal behavior is described as something that is personally distressing or dysfunctional or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate  Diagnosing Disorders o Reliability  A test with what consistency the measure assesses a characteristic on a given score o Validity  A test with measuring how well the test measures what it’s supposed to measure o Competency  Assessment of state of mind during time of judicial hearing o Insanity  Legal plea that defendant was not in the right state of mind to control their own behavior during time of crime  Not held accountable since they had no control  Perspectives o Biological  Disorder results from brain damage or chemical imbalance  The imbalance would be in a type of neurotransmitter  Treatment would require some kind of surgery or medication o Psychodynamic  Disorder is an internal battle among the aspects of personality (Id, Ego and Superego)  A failure to manage this conflict would result in unconscious repression  A primary means to protect yourself  Treatment would involve trying to get at the source of the conflict, usually with psychoanalysis o Learning  Disorder results from failure in learning (inappropriate connections or improper reinforcement)  Treatment would involve unlearning these connections and re-learning the proper ones o Cognitive  Individual’s style of thinking  Disorders are seen as self-generated and a result of our way of processing information  Result of poor self-esteem, unrealistic expectations  Therapy would include training better more rational styles of thinking o Humanistic  Disorder is from failure to achieve self-fulfillment  Caused by internal or external factors  Have to investigate the reasons for this  Classification: DSM-IV o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders  Why do we use it?  Universal guide to diagnosing mental disorder  Consistency o Everyone uses the same scheme, diagnosis is consistent and valid  How does it work?  Build profile, test empirically and determine how well you fall under the category of mental distress  Anxiety Disorders o Panic  Unpredictable panic attacks  Pervasive fear that another attack will occur  May develop agoraphobia, fear of open places o Generalized anxiety disorder  Chronic state of diffuse or free-floating anxiety that is not attached to situations or objects o Phobia  Strong irrational fears to certain objects or situation  Two subtypes, social and specific  Specific phobias revolve around certain objects such as spiders or snakes  Social phobias revolve around people, so fear of open places, germophobia etc… o OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)  Persistent and unwanted thoughts and compulsive behaviors  Obsessions are repetitive and unwanted thoughts, can’t control them and they keep coming up  Compulsions are repetitive behavioral responses that can’t be resisted easily o PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)  Characterized by social isolation, or unwanted thoughts  Relive moment of trauma in visions, flashbacks or nightmares  Mood Disorders (maladaptive mood state, such as depression or mania) o Bipolar  Biological parents 3 times more likely to have disorder than adoptive parents  Shown correlation between identical twins for risk  The disorder is characterised by mania that is shown under a background of depression  Rapidly cycles between the two of mania and depression o Major Depression  Intense depression that interferes markedly with functioning  Polar opposite of mania  Patient appears dejected, hopeless and feels worthless  Hallucinations and delusion can appear  Symptoms o Loss of appetite o Sleep disturbance o Fatigue o Little, if any, interest in sex  Suicide o Risk is low when in total depression, since there is apathy o Risk is higher when you have a good run, and then return to depression again o Dysthymia  Moderate intensity of depression  Develops over long period of time  Doesn’t disrupt functioning as major depression does o Mood swings  Manic to negative  Extremely positive to extremely negative  Learned helplessness  People can’t control life events over time they develop a state of helplessness that they think they can’t do anything to change their life o Depressive cognitive triad  Negative thoughts concerning  The world  Oneself  The future  Depressive at tribunal pattern  Blame self for failure but don’t acknowledge successes  Somatoform Disorders o Presence of physical symptom in addition to psychological problem o Hypochondriasis  Overreaction to physical symptoms and a conviction that one has or is on the verge of a serious illness o Conversion Disorder  Serious neurological symptoms, such as paralysis, loss of sensation or blindness suddenly occur o Pain disorder  Complaints of pain can’t be accounted for by presence of physical damage  Dissociative Disorders o Major dissociation of personal identity or memory  Used to avoid troubling thoughts or memories  To remove them from consciousness  patient forgets about problems o Amnesia  Psychogenic amnesia  Extensive but selective memory loss that occurs after a traumatic event o Fugue  Psychogenic fugue  Person loses all sense of personal identity and may wander to a new
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