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Chapter 14

Psychology Chapter 14 Review.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Chapter 14: Personality  Psychoanalytic Theories o Sigmund Freud  The unconscious  A darker side to human behavior, inaccessible to us  Basic drives and emotions reside in the unconscious  Psychic energy  Generated by instinctive drives, and this energy powers the mind and presses for either direct or indirect release o Pleasure principle is the drive for instant need gratification  Characteristic of Id o Unconscious conflict  Id  Primitive and unconscious part of personality that contains instincts  Ego  Strives to balance the demands of Id  When it can’t, results in anxiety which also must be dealt with  Executive of the personality o Partly conscious and mediates along impulses of Id and prohibitions of the Superego and the dictates of reality  Superego  Moral arm of the personality o Internalizes standards and values of society and serves as your “conscience” o Defense mechanism  Unconscious processes by which ego prevents expression of anxiety arousing impulses or disguises them  Examples  Repression o Keeps anxiety arousing material in unconscious o Ego will use some energy to prevent repressed thoughts and wishes from slipping into conscious mind  Sublimation o Channeling of unacceptable impulses into social acceptable behaviors  Aggressive drives funneled into violent sports  Reaction formation o Anxiety arousing impulse is repressed, and its psychic energy finds released in exaggerated expression of opposite behavior  You hate your child so you overprotect them  Displacement o Unacceptable impulse is repressed, and then directed at a safer substitute target  You’re mad at boss, so you go home and abuse your wife o Human development  Psychosexual stages of development  Regarding erogenous zones, which are bodily areas of pleasure  Freud states that if a problem occurs during one of these periods of growth, you become fixated on it and it affects your adult personality o Example, oral stage has problem in development, you become a nail biter to reduce stress  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Latency  Genital o Theorists  Jung  Humans possess a personal unconscious, and a collective unconscious o Not just life experiences, but also memories accumulated over lifetime o Shown by archetypes  Tendencies to view things in certain ways because of what you’ve experienced  Adler  Humans are social beings motivated by social interest  We strive to work with others and communicate  Also to be superior at everything, to compensate for being inferior in something we try to be more competent in life to compensate  Horney  Believed Freud focused too much on male problems with the mind, such as penis envy  She expanded his principles such as Oedipus complex to represent clinging to one parent and being jealousy of the other o Result of anxiety from a problem in relationship with said parent  Erikson  Rather than problems with erogenous zones, he thought of development as problem of crises with kids  At certain stages of life, you worry about different things o Example  As a kid, you worry about initiative vs. guilt or identity vs. role confusion  Whereas as an adult, you worry about intimacy vs. isolation  Humanistic Theories o People are unique and striving to be the best they can be o Focus on subjective experiences o Strive for self-actualization  Total realization of one’s potential o Problems arise when they are blocked from moving forward  Must look at their point of view to understand them o Carl Rogers’ Theory  Personality is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment  The Self  Self is an organized, consistent set of perceptions and of beliefs about oneself  We have needs for self-consistency and congruence o Self-consistency is the absence of conflict among self- perceptions o Congruence is consistency between self-perceptions and experiences  The need of positive regard is the acceptance, sympathy and love from others o Unconditional positive regard is communicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another person that conveys their intrinsic worth o Need for positive self-regard is an innate need to be positively regarded by self and others  Conditions of worth are internalized standards of self-worth fostered by conditional positive regard from others o Whether we approve or disapprove of ourselves  Fully functioning persons  A fully functioning person is Roger’s term for self-actualized people that are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity and a desire to develop further o Basically, a mentally healthy person  Self-Esteem  How positively or negatively you view yourself  Self-Verification  Tendency to try to verify or validate one’s existing self-concept o To satisfy congruence needs  Self-Enhancement  Processes whereby you enhance your own positive self-regard  Gender Schemas  Organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females  Trait Theories o Factor analysis  Statistical technique that permits a researcher to reduce a large number of measure to a small number of clusters or factors  Identifies clusters of behavior or test scores that are highly correlated with one another o Components of personality  Basic building blocks o Traits  Relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another o Theorists  Allport  Three main traits o Cardinal  Overiding trait that dominates your behavior, such as love for money o Central  Main traits found in all people that are shown in you o Secondary  Situational traits that arise on occasion  Cattell  16 perso
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