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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 – Intelligence.docx

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 10 – Intelligence Intelligence in Historical Perspective  Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think, and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment o Some theorists suggest that intelligence is culture-specific  Sir Francis Galton believed that intelligence was only occurring within certain families and that it was mental quickness o However, his theory was disfavoured because it only looked at the biological basis of intelligence rather than its social relevance, such as academic and occupational success o For instance, he believed that skull size was proportional to intelligence o Developped the correlation coefficient, but the results were disappointing  Alfred Binet developed an intelligence test to assess the mental skills of children. He believed that intelligence was a collection of higher-order abilities o He tested his theory that mental abilities develop with age, and that the rate at which people gain mental abilities is a characteristic of the person and that it develops over time o If a child is less competent in age 5, he/she will be less competent by age 10  Binet’s intelligence test gave rise to IQ (intelligence quotient) tests, the ratio of a mental age to chronological age multiplied by a 100 o However, this type of IQ test is not used often anymore. Modern IQ tests compare a person’s performance relative to the scores of other people of the same age  Binet & Simon developed a test in early 1900’s tapping a number of abilities o Correlated scores with teacher’s ratings aka criterion validity o Tests were revised and the concept of mental age was introduced  Binet’s tests led Lewis Terman of Stanford University to create an English version of it, and lead to the creation of other standardized tests such as Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test IQ = MA X 100 CA  WAIS-IV Is the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and has 10 subscales with both verbal and written performance  However, the idea of assigning an IQ scored based on mental age breaks down with adults due to concerns: reliability (consistency of measurement), validity (does the test measure what it’s supposed to do?), bias (is the test fair to all cultures?) The Nature of Intelligence  Psychologists use 2 approaches to studying intelligence: o Psychometric Approach The mapping of the structure of intellect, and to determine the mental competencies available through test performances o Cognitive Processes Approach Study of the specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies  Psychometrics is the statistical study of psychological tests. It tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie in performances 1) Factor Analysis  Researchers create a variety of ways to measure mental abilities and then try to correlate them with one another  If these individual tests have a high correlation with one another, then they must underlie something about that person’s performance  Factor Analysis is a method for investigating whether a number of variables of interest, are linearly related to a smaller number of unobservable factors  Spearman (1923) observed that the correlation between verbal and mathematical abilities reflect general mental capacity. From this observation, he concluded that intelligence is determined by a g factor (general intelligence) and by whatever special abilities are needed to perform a particular task o Your performance in math would depend on your general intelligence and the ability to learn math o The g factor is also a great predictor of academic and job performance a) Specific Mental Abilities  Many theorists such as Thurstone believed that intelligence was more complex than a single g factor  He concluded that human mental performance depends on sevent distinct abilities called primary mental abilities: o Space o Verbal Comprehension o Word Fluency o Number Facility o Perceptual Speed o Rote Memory o Reasoning  Educators find that specific-abilities notion of intelligence is better than a general mental ability model. It is better to raise certain mental skills than to raise general intelligence b) Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence  Cattell and Horn proposed an expanded model of intelligence based on Thurstone’s theory of primary mental abilities  The first subtype is crystallized intelligence is the ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems (ie. Vocabulary and information tests). o Reliant on long-term memory  Fluid intelligence is the ability to deal with problem-solving situations without any previously learned knowledge. This requires creative, out-of-the-box thinking o Dependent on the efficiency of the central nervous system o Requires the abilities to think abstractly and logically o Reliant on short-term memory  Research suggests that we start of with fluid intelligence as children, then move on to crystallized intelligence as we age c) Three-Stratum Model  Carroll created an integrative model of intelligence which consisted all of the elements of Spearman’s, Thurstone’s and Cattell-Horn’s models o Establishes intelligence from general, broad to specific  The top, stratum III, underlies the most mental activity and is modeled after the g factor  The second level, stratum II, consists of the eight broad intelligences and is arranged based on their correlation with one another. This stratum consists of both Thurstone’s and Cattell-Horn’s models  The last level, stratum I, is more narrow and is composed of nearly 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broader second-stratum factors Cognitive Process Approaches: the Nature of Intelligent Thinking  Cognitive Process Theories explores why people vary in mental skills, and the specific information-processing and cognitive abilities that underlie these abilities  Triarchic Theory of Intelligence addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligence and the various forms that intelligence can take. It is divided into 3 main components: o Metacomponents are H/O processes required to plan and regulate tasks, including identifying problems, creating hypotheses and strategies, etc. Intelligent people have better metacomponent skills, as in they frame their problems before hand, than non-intelligent people who tackle problems immediately. o Performance components the mental processes used to perform the task, such as perceptual processing, memory retrieval and generating responses o Knowledge-Acquisition Components is the ability to learn from experiences, store information in memory and combine newly learned information with previously learned ones o These abilities underlie crystallized intelligence  Sternberg believes that there are multiple forms of intelligence, which he also believed that should be taught in educational programs. Research has revealed that honing these multiple forms intelligence lead to great mastery of course material than traditional education. The multiple forms of intelligence are: o Analytical intelligence academic-oriented intelligence o Practical intelligence skills required to cope with everyday demands o Creative intelligence mental skills needed to deal with novel problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence  Some psychologists believe that intelligence is more than mental competence  Gardner (2003) has created a list of multiple intelligence: linguistic, logical- mathematical, visuospatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic  Some critics disagree with his view on multiple intelligence, and argue that some of them are talents  Gardner suggests that these multiple intelligences require different separate modules of the brain interact together  Emotional Intelligence is the ability to read and respond people emotions, and to regulate and monitor one’s own emotions as well.  The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) includes 4 branches to test emotional intelligence: o Perceiving emotions o Using emotions to facilitate thought o Understanding emotions o Managing emotions  Believers of emotional intelligence believe that it has a highly adaptive value in everyday life, even suggesting that those with high emotional intelligence live a more successful life than mentally intelligent people o People who disagree believe that emotional intelligence should be termed as emotional competence Measurement of Intelligence  Certain intelligence tests have been modified over the years in response to advances of the understanding of intelligence o Ex: the Stanford-Binet test originally tested verbal intelligence, but recent revisions samples a wider variety of skills  Advances in theory of intelligence has lead to the development of new instruments to test the specific abilities dictated by the theories, such as fluid and crystal intelligence 1) Aptitude or Achievement  Debates on whether aptitude or achievement should be measured has been occurring for years  Achievement tests are designed to test previous knowledge, whereas aptitude tests are designed to test a person’s ability to acquire and learn new information  Achievement tests are good predictors of future performance based on
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