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Chapter 1&2

Lectures 1 & 2 - Readings Chapter 1 & 2

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Psychology 1000
Nick Skinner

Psych Lecture #2/3 – Ch. 1&2 9/24/2013 10:33:00 AM Psychology – the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected organisms physical state, mental state and external environment. Methods: (1) Descriptive – Field Observation (naturalistic)  must be done systematically, as many situations/times as possible anthropomorphism: giving human characteristics to animals  on the basis of only observation, you can’t know exactly why the behavior happened  we explain what we see in an experiment because we set up the environment and controls - Survey: the conditions which a survey must abide  Methods of analyzing and recording must be recorded with administration  The surveyors must fully understand the purpose of the experiment and be skillful and knowledgeable  The sample of people you are asking to take the survey must be selected to represent the population  Surveys questions must cover the topic uniform and generate answers which discriminate and/or do not create bias - “clinical”  Interviewist Rating Scale PAST  Tests (Subjective, Objective) PRESENT  Case Study *more than half of psychologist in Canada are Clinical Psychologist Conditions for a good rating system:  (1)person who does the rating must be familiar with the use of a scale, the rater should know the person they are rating for at least 3 months, must be able to rate the person in multiple areas of life  (2) 10-20 raters per person being rated  (3) person who is receiving the rates should be aware of the relationship between each rater and them self Tests: Subjective (self-import)  honest judgment about yourself, notoriously fakeable Objective  put a person in a miniature behavioral situation -a lot of info -a lot of people -quickly -no complex apparatus -not disruptive longitudinal study (over long period of time) ex) Silva (principle) monitored about 1000 children, tested every 2-3 years (2) Correlational – chapter 1 & appendix (3) Experimental (Systematic Intervention)– a matter of logic, not location Characteristics:  Experimental Control  Experimental Method – replication - variables: something that can vary, a factor or condition that can change that can be measured Controlled variables: experimenter has to deal with and possibly eliminate Convention for graphing independent and dependent variables:  Dependent variable always on Y-axis (DOVY) dependent, ordinate, vertical  Y-axis  Independent variable always on the x-axis a3i a artificially / control one has in a lab, may not be the case in reality 3 i inappropriateness, interference, interpretation Left handed cohort: 85% more likely to get into a car accident 2% more likely to die Empirical – Relaying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement Psychobabble – Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language  Promises easy fixes to life’s problems and challenges Examples of psychobabble believed to be true, but in fact have been proven WRONG by empirical evidence;  Abused children become abusive adults  Most women suffer from PMS  Play Beethoven’s symphony to an infant and they will become smarter THINKING CRITICALLY AND CREATIVELY ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY CRITICAL THINKING – the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.  Come up with alternate explanations for events, research findings and apply new knowledge to social/personal problems  Indispensable in ordinary life  Clear thinking requires effort and practice  Your opinion, if it ignores reality, is not equal to any other  Fundamental to all science  The trigger for creative thinking is the disposition to be curious, to wonder, to inquire Thinking critically about the issues; pg. 15 for examples (1) Ask Questions and be willing to wonder  ask the right questions (2) Define your terms  what are you trying to find out (3) Examine the evidence  conduct tests, don’t relay all on what the eye sees (4) Analyze assumptions and biases  Does it always work the same way, does it depend on the environment? (5) Don’t oversimplify  resists easy generalizations (6) Avoid emotional reasoning  needed for defending unpopular ideas, but not when it becomes a “gut- feeling” (7) Tolerate uncertainty  when there is little or no evidence to examine (8) Consider other interpretations  generate as many possible explanations before settling on the most likely one *People do not become angry, sad or anxious because of certain events, but because of their own explanations of those events JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) argued the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience. PHRENOLOGY – the now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be read from bumps on the skull. Wilhelm Wundt – trained in medicine and philosophy, opened the first laboratory and to announce psychology as a science (1873)  Concentrated on sensation, perception, reaction times, imagery, attention  Avoided learning, personality, and abnormal behaviour THREE EARLY PSYCHOLOGIES STRUCLURALISM – emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements  Wundt’s approach - 1879  Became the way of the dinosaur  Asks what FUNCTIONALISM – Emphasized the function or purpose of behaviour and consciousness  William Jones (1842-1910)  American philosopher, psychologist, physician  He said the brain and mind are constantly changing  Asks how and why  Inspired by Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Looked for underlying causes and practical consequences of behaviors PSYCHOANALYSIS – a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.  “mind cures” lasted from 1830-1900, efforts to correct false ideas that were causing depression, anxiety and unhappy people  Freud argues that being conscious is only the tip of the mental iceberg o Under the visible tip, the unconscious mind, containing unrevealed wishes, passion and hidden secrets (sexual / aggressive in nature) MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES (1) Biological Perspective – how bodily events affect behaviour, feelings and thoughts. (2) Learning Perspective – how the environment and experience affect a person’s actions. Social-cognitive theorists combine elements of behaviourism with research on thoughts, values and expectations and intentions. (3) Cognitive Perspective – emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads; how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems, explain experiences, acquire moral standards and form beliefs. (4) Sociocultural Perspective – focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual, forces that shape every aspect of behaviour, from how we kiss to what and where we eat. (5) Psychodynamic Perspective – Deals with unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or instinctual energy. HUMANIST PSYCHOLOGY – emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY – approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes. What do psychologists do?  Teaching and doing research in colleges and universities  Providing health or mental health services, often referred to as psychological practice  Conducting research or applying its findings in nonacademic settings such as; business, sports, government, law and the military Nonclinical Psychologists:  Experimental – conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology and cognition.  Educational – study principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve education systems.  Developmental – how people change and grow over time, physically, mentally, and socially.  Industrial/ Organizational – behaviour in the workplace.  Psychometric – design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitud
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