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Chapter 2

Psychology 1000- Chapter 2 Lecture Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
John Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 1000 September 16 , 2013 CHAPTER TWO –SUDYING BEHAVIOUR SCIENTIFICALLY SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES  Curiosity: “Why?”  Skepticism: “Show me your evidence”…“Might there be a better explanation”  Open-mindedness: Recognizing that the results and findings may go against your instincts. EXAMPLE –KITTY GENOVESE MURDER o Horrible crime witnessed by 38 bystanders, none whom called the police o Bystander apathy? o Darley and Latane o Was there something more going on? o Why would no one call the police? DARLEY & LATANE EXAMPLE  Rather than apathy, perhaps it was “diffusion of responsibility”  Created an If-Then question: o “In an emergency, IF multiple bystanders are present, THEN the likelihood that any one bystander will intervene is reduced.”  Designed an experiment to test their hypothesis  How did they do it? o Recording of someone yelling for help o The one-on-one responded more quickly than the larger groups  What did they find?  Video clip of an individual laying on the ground calling for “help” in three different scenarios: o Homeless man: Lasted at least twenty minutes without anyone stopping o Middle class female: Lasted six minutes, then someone helped and others joined o Business suit man: Lasted maybe six seconds, then every bystander was by his side offering help  Factors that can influence the bystanders –social status, age, gender, blood or noticeable injury, being witness to the event (a fall) etc.  Page 39 THE CORRELATIONAL METHOD  Study relationships among variable  Variable: anything that can be measured o Behaviours o Events o Characteristics  Example: more smokes, more cancer  Example: higher IQ, more money  Relationship between variables is shown by a statistic, the correlation coefficient (r)  r can be between -1.o and +1.0  Value tells us the strength of the relationship  Close to +1.0 or -1.0: very strong relationship  Sign tells us the direction of the relationship  + means that both variables vary in the same direction o If one goes up, so does the other o Ex. More smokes, more cancer  - mean that as one variable goes up, the other goes own (like a see-saw) o Ex. More smokes, fewer expected years to live CORRELATIONS  Examples: o Marijuana and grade point average? o Marijuana and junk food consumption? o Grade point average and height? *Note: Cannot exceed past +1.0 or below -1.0. *YOU CAN NEVR INFER CAUSATION… CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION!! CORRELATION FINDINGS  Li (1975) tried to identify variables that best predicted contraceptive use for people in Taiwan.  Strongest positive correlation was the number of appliances in the house and use of birth control. th September 18 , 2013 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Three steps: 1. Manipulate a variable 2. Determine whether the manipulation causes a change in a second variable 3. Control for extraneous factors that might cause the apparent change  Hypothesis - A prediction about a cause-effect relationship - E.g.
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