Textbook Notes (369,064)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (4,929)
Psychology 1000 (1,640)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs

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Psychology- Chapter 1 Behavioral Perspective • focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions • behaviour is jointly determined by habit learned from previous life experiences and by stimuli in our immediate environment • roots in philosophical school of British empiricism • John Locke- at birth, the human mind is a tabula rasa, a “black slate” upon which experiences are written • Iva Pavlov- learning occurs when events are associated with each other • Edward Thorndike- law of effect, responses followed by satisfying consequences bcome more likely to recur, those followed the unsatisfying consequences are less likely to recur Behaviourism a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning • • John B. Watson led the new movement • argued proper subject matter of psychology was observable behaviour • sought to discover laws that govern learning B.F. Skinner- “No account of what is happening inside the human body, no matter how • complete, will explain the origins of human behaviour”, “A person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him” • believed that through social engineering society could harness the power of the environment to change behaviour in beneficial ways • his approach- radical behaviourism • behaviour modification- aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive behaviours by manipulating environment, still used today • radical behaviourism influence waned after 1970s, interest in mental processes expanded Cognitive Behaviourism • attention, memory could be rigorously studied • learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving us the information we need to behave effectively • Albert Bandura- environment does not automatically “stamp in” or “stamp out” behaviours Humanistic Perspective: Self-Actualization and Positive Pyschology • humanistic perspective emphasized free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence • rejected psychodynamic concepts of humans being controlled by unconscious forces Abraham Maslow- proposed that each of us has inborn force toward self-actualization • • when humans develop in supportive environment, the positive inner nature of a person emerges • misery occurs when environments frustrate our innate tendencies • emphasized importance of personal choice, responsibility, personality growth and positive feelings of self-worth • belongingness- basic human need for social acceptance and companionship • humanistic concepts stimulated research on self-esteem and self-concept • more limited impact on mainstream psychological science because few humanists were scientists • positive psychology movement- emphasizes study of human strengths, fulfillment and optimal living Cognitive Perspective: The Thinking Human • examines the nature of the mind, how mental processes influence behaviour • structuralism and functionalism reflected cognitive perspective • 1920s Gestalt psychology- examined how the mind organizes elements of experience into a unified perception • “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” • believed tendency to perceive wholes is built into our nervous system • behaviourism’s anti-mentalistic stance strengthened in 1920s and 1930s Renewed Interest in the Mind • new metaphor developed in 1950s, the mind is a system that processes, stores and retrieves information • on another front in 1950s, behaviourists claimed language is acquired through basic principles of learning • linguists argued humans are biologically “preprogrammed” to acquire language • Jean Piaget- explained how children’s thinking becomes more sophisticated with age • psychologists’interest in mental processes swelled in 1960s, period called cognitive revolution Modern Cognitive Perspective • cognitive psychology- focuses on study of mental processes • study the processes by which people reason, make decisions, solve problems, form perceptions and understand language • Elizabeth Loftus- study memory and factors that distort it • explore nature of consciousness • cognitive neuroscience- uses sophisticated electrical recording and brain-imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks • represents intersection of cognitive and biological psychology The Sociocultural Perspective: The Embedded Human • examines how the social environ
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