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Chapter 13

PSYCH1000 - Chapter 13

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Corey Isaacs

Chapter 13Social Thinking and PerceptionAttribution Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour Attributions judgments about the causes of our own and other peoples behavior and outcomes Personal versus Situational AttributionsFritz Heiderour attempts to understand why people behave as they do typically involve either personal attributions or situational attributions oPersonal internal attributions peoples behavior is caused by their characteristicsoSituational external attributions aspects of the situation cause a behavior oHarold Kelly 3 types of info determine the attribution we make Consistency distinctiveness consensus When all 3 are highmake situational attributionWhen consistency highothers are lowmake personal attributionAttributional BiasesFundamental attribution error we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other peoples behavior Applies to how we perceive other peoples behavior rather than our ownWhen people have time to reflect on their judgments or are highly motivated to be careful the fundamental attribution error is reduced Selfserving bias making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failuresCulture and AttributionCulture affects how we perceive the social worldour cultural backgroundsSame underlying psychological principle link between holistic thinking and beliefs about causality accounts for informationseeking differences between culturesamong individuals within each cultureForming and Maintaining ImpressionsAttributions play key role in impression formation Primacy versus Recency Are First Impressions More ImportantPrimacy effect our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a personNew information can change our opinion but will be harder to overcome initial impressionoMost alert to information we receive firstoInitial information may shape how we perceive subsequent information Evolutionary psychologists say that evaluating stimuli quickly was adaptive for survival Recency effect giving greater weight to the most recent informationMental Sets and Schemas Seeing What We Expect to SeeSchemas mental frameworks that help us organize and interpret informationStereotype a generalized belief about a group or category of peoplerepresents a powerful type of schema SelfFulfilling Prophecies Creating What We Expect to SeeSelffulfilling prophecy occurs usually without conscious awareness when peoples erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours thereby confirming the original impression Initial unfounded expectations can influence how we behave toward them thereby shaping their behavior in a way that ultimately confirms our expectations Attitudes and Attitude Change Attitude a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus such as a person action object or concept Do Our Attitudes Influence Our Behaviour3 factors explain why attitudebehaviour relationship is strong or weak1Theory of planned behavior intention to engage in behavior is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behavior when subjective norms support our attitudes and when we believe that the behavior is under our control
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