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psych ch 1-4 text book notes

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Psychology 1000
Marla Wolf

Chapter 1: The Science of Behavior Psychology: study of behavior and the mind Behavior: actions that can be observed Mind: internal states and processes (ex. thoughts, feelings e.t.c) most important thing, but most difficult to get to Clinical Psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive psychology: study of mental processes (mind= info processor) Study of: consciousness, attention, memory, decision making, problem solving Psycholinguistics: psych of language Ex. Jumbled words… hppay (first and last letter stay the same) Biopsychology: effect of genes and hormones on the brain ** Developmental Psych: physical, psychological and social development Ex. Affects of parenting styles on children Experimental Psych: focuses on learning, senses and motivations Often testing done in the lab on nonhumans Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psych: psych of the workplace Ex. Teamwork, leadership, job satisfaction Personality Psych: studies personality and how it influences behavior Social Psych: examines individuals thoughts, feelings and behavior towards one and other relationships, first impressions Scientific Approach • we often take mental shortcuts when forming judgements and make assumptions • we may then fail to consider alternative explanations • in the en we display confirmation bias ( paying attention to information that is consistent with our beliefs and ignoring all that isa inconsistent) • to avoid this scientists study controlled groups and compare notes • researchers often modify others conclusions or come to a completely diff conclusion • “science is ultimately a self-correcting process” evaluating validity: • What, exactly is the claim? • Who? is the source credible and trustworthy? • evidence? • other explanations possible? can it be evaluated? • most appropriate conclusion? PSYCH AS A BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCE basic research: looking for knowledge, ex. behavior and factors that influence behavior applied research: solving specific problems uses basic research to answer problems Level of analysis biological level: brian processes, genetic influences psychological level: thoughts, feelings and motives environmental level: past and current physical and social environments to which we are exposed to. Thinking Critically About Behavior • modern day perspective is shaped by the media • individuals do not search for credibility, research or proof • increase believe in palm readers and astrology • they make important decision based on this • pseudoscience: looks like science but is not •Ex. Astrology, graphology, PSYCHOLOGY’S GOAL describe behavior explain and understand behavior predict behavior control behavior PSYCH’S BROAD SCOPE: A SIMPLE FRAMEWORK level of analysis biological level (ex. brain processes) psychological level (ex. thoughts and feelings) environmental level (ex. physical and psychological environment’s that we are exposed to) nature: the way you’re born ( our biological endowment) nurture: what you learn during life ( our environment and learning history) PERSPECTIVES ON BEHAVIOR psychology has roots in philosophy, biological and physical sciences and medicine perspectives: different ways of viewing people PSYCHOLOGY’S INTELLECTUAL ROOTS mind-body dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) mind & body interact done through pineal gland believed in dualism descartes placed the mind in the brain, he maintained that the mind was a spiritual, non material entity * dualism: research on physical body cannot reveal info on mind *monism: mind and body are ONE it meant that the mental events = physical events Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) the mind could be studied by physical processes believed in monism John Locke (1632 – 1705) knowledge gained through senses ( empirically) root of modern science 1870’s – electro stimulating animal brains damage in part of brain = specific behavioral or mental problem Psychophysics: study of how psychological sensation depend on physical aspects (ex: loudness of sound) Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) theory of evolution contradict beliefs that the mind is spiritual, instead it is a biological object ( his theory was attacked) suggested that studying other species would provide insight EARLY SCHOOLS: STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920) opened first experimental psych lab in Germany believe in structuralism William James (1842 – 1910) studied various mental and bio processes taught at Havard functionalist Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) studied memory and dreams first female president of APA ( american psychologist association) structuralism: analysis of the mind by breaking it down into basic elements Studied the mind by getting subjects to describe feeling after being expose to different stimuli (ex. light, sound, textures) uses introspection ( looking within) to study sensations too subjective but lead to cognitive processes functionalism: ask questions about how things work and why influenced by darwin no longer exists it became: cognitive psych: study of mental processes evolutionary psych: studies adaptation an
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