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Chapter 4

Psych 1000 Chapter 4 Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 4: Genes, Evolution, and Behaviour - Genetic Influences: - Chromosomes and Genes: o Genotype: the specific genetic makeup of an individual and it never changes. o Phenotype: the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowment, it does change. o Chromosome: a tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partially covered by protein. All cells in the human body have 46 chromosomes, except sex cells, which have 23. o Genes: inside the DNA, hereditary blueprints that contain the information about the individual’s characteristics, potentials, and limitations. Code for the production of protein.  Dominant genes: the characteristic it controls will be displayed.  Recessive genes: the characteristic it controls will not be displayed, unless the partner gene received from the other parent is recessive as well.  Polygenic transmission: when a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotype trait.  Gene Therapy: Brian Druker – discovered Gleevec, which targets and turns off proteins that cause CML. This type of research is looking very important for the future. o Zygote: formed from an egg cell and sperm cell. o Alleles: alternate forms of a gene that produce different characteristics. - Genetic Engineering – The Edge of Creation: o Recombinant DNA procedures: using certain enzymes to cut the long threadlike molecules of genetic DNA into pieces, then combine them with DNA from another organism, and insert them into a host organism, typically a bacterium. The new DNA combination continues to divide and produce many copies of itself. This has been used to produce human growth hormone. o Gene knockout: to alter a specific gene in a way that prevents it from carrying out its normal function. - Behaviour Genetics Techniques: o Heredity: the passage of characteristics from parents to offspring through genes. o Heritability: how much of the variation in a characteristic within a population can be attributed to genetic differences. o Heritability Coefficient: an estimated statistic that determines the extent to which variation in a particular trait can be attributed to genetic differences in a population. o Concordance: the probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic. If the concordance is high in people who are closely related to one another, then this points to a genetic contribution, particularly if they have lived in different environments. There are a few research methods based on this principle:  Adoption Study: studying a person who was adopted early in life and comparing their characteristics with the biological parents, and with the adoptive parents.  Twin Studies: studying the characteristics of sets of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.  Monozygotic twins: identical twins, they are developed from the same fertilized egg, therefore they are genetically identical.  Dizygotic twins: fraternal twins, they are developed from separate fertilized eggs; therefore they share 50% of their genetic endowment. - Genetic Influences of Behaviour: - Heredity, Environment and Intelligence: o Characteristics such as intelligence are affected by environ
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