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Chapter 5

Psych 1000 Chapter 5 Review Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Wolfe/ Quinlan

Chapter 5Sensation and Perception Sensationthe stimulusdetection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brainPerceptionactive process of organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaningSensory ProcessesStimulus detectionabsolute threshold designated as the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 of the timeSignal detection theoryconcerned with the factors that influence sensory judgments o Decision criterionstandard of how certain a person must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detect it o Increased rewards for noticing stimuli often results in lower detection thresholds o Increased dangerpunishment for noticing stimuli often raises detection thresholdDifference thresholdsmallest difference between two stimuli that can be perceived 50 of the time just noticeable differencejnd o Webers Lawto perceive a difference between two stimuli one must differ by a constant ratio Value for weights150 therefore if 50 lbs is lifted increased weight will only be detected at 51 lbs Smaller fractionhigher sensitivity Doesnt apply to extremely high or low stimulation intensities Sensory adaptationthe diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus o Perception of stimuli will decrease if constantly presentThe Sensory SystemsVisionThe Human Eye o Light enters eye through cornea transparent protective structure o Pupiladjustable opening that dilates or constricts to control amount of light entering o Iriscontrols the pupil o Lenselastic structure that becomes thinner to focus on distant objects and thicker to focus on nearby objectsImage flipped and reversed onto retina Ability to see clearly depends on lens ability to focus image onto retina Myopia nearsightednesslens focuses image in front of retina Hyperopia farsightednesslens focuses image behind retina o Retinamultilayered tissue at rear of eyeballPhotoreceptors Rods and Cones o Retina covered in lightsensitive receptor cells o Rodsblack and white receptorsFunction best in dim lighto Conescolor receptorsFunction best in bright lighto In humans rods are everywhere except fovea direct center of retinaCones decrease in concentration distant from the foveao Rods and cones send message to brain via two additional layers of cellsBipolar cells have synaptic connections with rods and cones Bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells whose axons form into optic nerveo Cones in the fovea each have private line to a single bipolar cell unlike others which have many rodscones for each bipolar cell
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