Textbook Notes (369,153)
Canada (162,424)
Psychology (4,938)
Psychology 1000 (1,640)
Chapter 1

Psychology Chapter 1.docx

6 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Shelley Cross- Mellor

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Psychology Chapter 1 September 20, 2011 Chapter 1 – The Science of Behaviour  The Nature of Psychology o Scientific study of behaviour and mind  Behaviour – actions and responses that we observe directly  Mind – internal states and processes (feelings, thoughts) that we can’t see o Psychologist does not necessarily mean therapist o Different fields in psychology  Clinical Psychology  Most psychologists are this type  Study and treatment of mental disorders  Cognitive Psychology  Looks at mental processes  Views mind as information processor  Examine consciousness, attention, memory, decision making/problem solving o Psycholinguistics: use the jumbled word exercise  Biopsychology  Biological reasons behind behaviour  How genes, hormones, and brain processes affect our behaviour  How has evolution shaped our capabilities?  Developmental Psychology  Examines our development over our lifespan  Example: emotional world of infants, different parenting styles affect children  Experimental Psychology  Examines basic processes like learning, perception, senses, and motivation  Use non-human animals for experiments  Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology  Behaviour in work place  How work environment affects motivation and performance  Help employers find best employees from applicants  Design tests to evaluate employee performance  Personality Psychology  Studies human personality  How do different traits relate to one another?  Develop tests to measure personalities  Social Psychology  Examine thoughts, feelings, and general behaviour that associates with social aspect of life  How do people influence one another?  Study relationships o Different fields often overlap with one another  Decision making is covered in all fields o Psychology research spans the all aspects of behaviour  Psychology’s Scientific Approach o Some psychologist’s take a scientific approach to behaviour  Science gathers empirical evidence to solve problems  Empirical evidence is gained through experience and observation  Systematic means performed against a set of rules o Want findings to be as accurate as possible o Many things provide us with information about human nature o Often take mental shortcuts o Fail to consider alternative explanations as to why we behaved in such a way o Many biases around the world o Psychologist use science to make concrete steps to minimize biases and inaccurate conclusions o Psychologists use casual observation and instruments to come to conclusions o Psychologists compare observations when many observe one group of people o Use statistics to analyze data o Use very highly controlled experiment conditions o Psychologists publish findings to enable scientists to challenge their findings o New studies cause old experiments to be modified o Poorly executed studies produce inaccurate information which leads to invalid conclusions o Science represents how the world operates  Thinking Critically About Behaviour o Behaviour is complex, poses complicated challenges o Take an active role in understanding world, rather than absorb information  Evaluate validity o Misconceptions can lead to increasingly misguided views of the world and how it operates o People accept misconceptions  Spend money on fortune tellers and other such people that read personalities  These are dressed up to make people believe them, outward appeal  Psychology’s Goals o Describe how people and other animals behave o Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours  May be able to predict future of when these behaviours will occur o Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions o Influence/control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare  Control causes = control behaviour  Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science o Goals of basic research: describe how people behave, identify factors that influence that particular behaviour o Goals of applied research: solve practical problems with the use of discovered principles  Psychology’s Broad Scope: A Simple Framework o Behaviour is examined at:  Biological level: brain processes, genetics  Psychological level: thoughts, feelings  Environmental level: past and current physical and social environments o Example: Eating  Biological: chemicals, neural circuits tell brain you are hungry  Psychological: moods and food preferences  Environmental: stress levels, boredom, aroma of fresh bread o Positive thoughts reduce stress, dwell on negative thoughts and stress rises o Mind-Body Interactions: relationship between mental processes and bodily systems o Is behaviour shaped by nature or nurture?  Perspectives on Behaviour o Psychology has roots in many sciences and philosophies o Perspectives are engines of progress o Contrasting perspectives merge into new frameworks, which will be contrasted by other perspectives  Psychology’s Intellectual Roots o Dualism: no amount of research on physical body (including body) could ever hope to unravel the mysteries of the nonphysical mind o Monists believe mental events correspond to physical happenings in the brain o Monism is the foundation to psychology today, helped build it o Empiricists believe observation is more valid than pure reason, reason has the potential for error o Physiology and medicine has also pushed the discovery of psychology o Medical reports linked damage to parts of the brain to certain behaviours o Psychophysics: study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli o Evolution implies that mind was not spiritual, product of biological continuity between humans and other species  Early Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism o Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener believed the mind could be studied by breaking it down into basic components (structuralism) o Introspection: looking within o Studied sensations as they exposed the sensory areas to light, sounds, and tastes o Eventually became functionalism o Example: Hands
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.