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Chapter 10

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion  Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour  Instinct – inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus  Homeostasis -a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain -requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system  According to Clarke Hull’s drive theory, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce DRIVES (states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension)  Incentives -represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal -emphasizes the “pull” of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need -expectancy x value theory (goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviour will lead to a goal and the value of the individual places on that goal called incentive value) = motivation -extrinsic motivation (performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment) and intrinsic motivation (performing an activity for its own sake) -overjustification hypothesis (giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation)  Psychodynamic Theory -unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel -“dual instinct” model (unconscious impulses struggle for release and psychological defences keep them under control)  Humanistic Theory -need hierarchy proposed by Abraham Maslow (physiogicalsafetybelongingness and loveesteemcognitiveaestheticSelf Actualization)  Physiological of Hunger -metabolism (body’s rate of energy utilization); basal metabolism (resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells) -satiety (state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating) -Washburn swallowed a balloon to display that stomach contractions do correspond to subjective feelings of hunger -glucose (simple sugar that is the body’s major source of usable fuel) -CCK (released into bloodstream by intestines; decreases eating) -leptin (hormone that decreases appetite) -lateral hypothalamus (“hunger on”), ventromedial hypothalamus (“hunger off”), paraventricular nucleus (cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite) -neuropeptide Y (secreted by neurons in PVN; decreases hunger) -leptin inhibits activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN and reduces appetite  Psychological Aspects of Hunger -women have increasingly been dissatisfied with their body image (changed over the years) -overestimate how thin they need to be to conform to a man’s preference -objectification theory (Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would)  Environment and Cultural Factors -food availability is the most obvious environmental regulator of eating -food taste and variety powerfully regulate eating -cultural norms influence when, how, and what we eat  Obesity -blamed on the lack of willpower, weak character, and emotional disturbances -obesity rates increase due to abundance of inexpensive, fast food, cultural emphasis on “getting the best value” (supersizing), and technological advances that decrease need for daily physical activity and encourage a sedentary lifestyle -obese people have high levels of insulin, resulting in an increase of glucose to fat  Sexual Motivation -sexual response cycle consists of the excitement phase (arousal and increase blood flow), plateau phase (respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension build until orgasm), orgasm phase (semen cums out of the penis and females scream), resolution phase (arousal decrease and genitals return to normal condition), and refractory period (incapable of orgasm) -gonadotropins affect rate of gonads secreting androgens and estrogens -organizational effects direct development of male and female characteristics; activational effects stimulate sexual desire and behaviour  Psychology of Sex -sexual fantasy is a result of an increase in sexual activity -sexual dysfunction is chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person (i.e. man cannot keep boner during intercourse)  Cultural and Environmental Influences -cultural norms affect sexual activity and awareness -environmental stimuli (i.e. caressing) can trigger sexual desire; viewing sexual violence reinforces men’s belief in rape myths and increases men’s aggression toward women temporarily -sexual orientation is one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex -involves self-identity, sexual attracti
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