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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Psychology.docx

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 11: Development over the Life Span  4 issues of Developmental Psychology -nature vs. nurture (products of heredity and environment) -critical period (age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally) and sensitive period (optimal age range for certain experiences, but if they occur at some other time, normal development will still be possible) -continuity (gradual development) and discontinuity (progressing through distinct stages) -stability vs. change (consistent characteristics)  5 developmental functions -no change (ability present at or before birth and remains constant) -continuity (ability not present at birth, but develops gradually over time and remains constant) -discontinuity (ability progresses in stages; rapid shifts from lower level of performance to higher) -inverted U-Shaped (ability emerges after birth, peaks, then disappears with age) -U-Shaped (ability is present early in live, disappears temporarily, then re-emerges later)  Major Issues and Methods -cross sectional design (compare people of different ages at same point in time) -cohorts (different age groups) -longitudinal design (repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older) -sequential design (combines cross sectional and longitudinal)  Prenatal Development -prenatal period (266 days during which a single-cell organism develops in a complex newborn human) -germinal stage (first 2 weeks of development; sperm fertilizes egg, which is called a zygote) -embryonic stage (end of second week through the eighth week; cell mass is now an embryo, placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother’s blood to the umbilical cord, which contains blood vessels that carry the nutrients and oxygen to the embryo, and waste products back to the mother) -feral stage (after ninth week, now a fetus; muscle becomes stronger and bodily systems continue to develop) -at 24 weeks, eyes open, and at 28 weeks, fetus attains age of viability (likely to survive outside the womb in case of premature birth)  Genetics and Sex Determination -XX means a girl, XY means a boy -Y chromosome has TDF gene that initiates development of tests at around 6-8 weeks  Environmental Influences -teratogens (environmental influences that cause abnormal prenatal development; i.e. mercury, radiation, nictone) -fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (group of abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol consumption; results in a small brain, facial abnormalities, and a small stature)  Infancy and Childhood -newborns have poor acuity, lack of coordinated eye movements, and tunnel vision -preferential looking procedure (newborns preferred complex patterns; prefer mother’s face than strangers) -visual habituation procedure (same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines; when a novel stimulus is presented, infant look longer at it than familiar one and shows that infants have a memory since they can discriminate between the two)  Sensory-Perceptual Development  Physical, Motor, and Brain Development -maturation (genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth) -cephalocaudal principle (tendency for development to proceed in a head to foot direction) -proximodistal principle (development begins along the inner parts of the body and continues toward the outer parts) -reflexes (automatic, inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimuli)  Environmental and Cultural Influences -biology sets limits on environmental influences (best nutrition does not guarantee people to grow to 7 feet tall and no infant can be toilet-trained until the nerve fibres that regulate bladder control have matured) -environmental influences can be powerful (nurturing environments foster growth, while impoverish environments can stunt growth) -biological and environmental factors interact (enriched environmental enhance brain development = facilitates ability to learn and benefit from environmental experiences) -sleeper effects (permanent effects in information processes not functioning at the time of deprivation that emerge long after the early deprivation is corrected)  Cognitive Development (Piaget’s Stage Model) -children’s thinking changes qualitatively with age and differs from the way adults think -brain build schemas (organized patterns of thought and action) -assimilation (combing novel experience with existing schemas) and accommodation (novel experiences cause existing schemas to change) Stage Age (years) Major Characteristics -infants understand world through Sensorimotor Birth to 2 sensory and motor experiences -achieves object permanence -emergence of symbolic thought Preoperational 2-7 -symbolic thinking (words and images to represent objects and experiences -thinking displays egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration Concrete Operational 7-12 -child can thinking logically about concrete events -grasps concepts of conservation and serial ordering Formal Opertational 12+ -adolescent can think more logically, abstractly, and flexibly -can form hypotheses and test them systematically  Assessment of Piaget’s Theory -the general cognitive abilities associated with Piaget’s four stages appear to occur in the same order across cultures -culture influences cognitive development -cognitive development within each stage seems to proceed inconsistently  Vygostky: The Social Context of Cognitive Development -cognitive development occurs in a socio-cultural context -zone of proximal development (difference between what a child can do independently, and what the child can do with assistance from adults or advanced peers)  Information-Processing Approaches -information search strategies (immature selective attention) -information processing strategies (improves during childhood) -memory capabilities (organizing information and using strategies to improve memory) -metacognition (awareness of one’s own cognitive processes)  Theory of Mind: Children’s Understanding of Mental States -theory of mind (a person’s beliefs about how the mind works and what others are thinking about) -Piaget believed that children under 7 years old had a very limited understanding of how the mind works and have difficulty inferring what others are thinking (not being able to understand how someone else perceives a situation) -lying and deception reflect the operation of a theory of mind and imply an understanding that one can instill a false belief into another person’s mind  Moral Development -Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning Level of Moral Reasoning Basis for Judging what is Moral Level 1: Preconventional Actual/anticipated punishment and rewards, rather than internalized values Stage 1: punishment/obedience orientation Stage 1: obeying rules and avoiding punishment Stage 2: instrumental/hedonistic orientation Stage 2: self-interest and gaining rewards Conformity to the expectations of social groups; person Level 2: Conventional adopts other people’s values Stage 3: good child orientation Stage 4: law and order orientation Stage 3: gaining approval and maintain good relations
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