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Sociology 2233

Chapter 1 – The Mission and Method - Social psychology: the scientific study of how people affect and are affected by others - Contradictory studies done by Ringelmann and Triplett  work done better in presence of others; or slacking off in presence of others (presence of others on individual performance) - Gordon Allport: study of attitudes - Kurt Lewin: behaviour is a function of the person and the situation (ex: will girl finish her paper on time? Ask is she lazy, etc? and situation – is the paper hard?) - Social psychology combined Freudian psychoanalysis (mind, thoughts, unconscious mind) and behaviourism (experiments involving learning principles, i.e. reward vs. punishment) What Do Social Psychologists Do? - ABC Triad: o A is for Affect – how people feel inside (about themselves (self-esteem), others (prejudice), and issues (attitudes)) o B is for Behaviour – what people do, their actions o C is for Cognition – what people think about (themselves (self-concept), others (forming impressions), and issues (protecting the environment)) - Primary approach = scientific method - Focus on the power of situations Biological psychology: what happens in the brain, nervous system, etc. Clinical psychology: abnormal behaviour Cognitive psychology: thought processes (memory, etc.) Developmental psychology: how people change across their lives Personality psychology: important differences between individuals and inner processes Social psychology: how human beings think, act, and feel Difference between philosophy and psych: Psychology uses scientific method to collect data Applied Research: research that focuses on solving particular problems Basic Research: research that focuses on a general understanding of basic principles that can be applied to many different problems How Do Psychologists Answer their own Questions? Accumulated Common Wisdom – - Human intuition is a poor method for discovering truth  “opposites attract” and “birds of feather flock together” – both claimed to be seen as “true” - Must be scientifically proved; common sense is only the start The Scientific Method – 1. State a problem to study 2. Hypothesis 3. Design study, collect data 4. Is the data consistent with the hypothesis? (only 5% should be “flukes”) 5. Reveals results; may be published Scientific Theories - Theory: constructs linked together; connects them with concrete variables using operational definitions Theoretical Theoretical Stimulus Response Operational Definitions Independent Dependent Variable Variable - Unobservable constructs (red), Observable variables (blue) - Ex: Frustration causes aggression (frustration is stimulus, aggression is response) - Within subject design: independent variable given to all participants - Between subject design: independent variable given to only some participants - Independen
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