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Sexuality Chapter

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Sociology 2259
Kim Luton

What is Deviant Sexuality? What is considered acceptable varies between each individual. Deviant label=product of social processes Objective deviance: cultural and historical variations in the norms that are used as the standards against which deviance is judged. Subjective deviance: processes of social construction. social processes determine who is socially typed as deviance through 1. description: placed in a category because of their sexuality 2. evaluation: judged on the basis of the category into which they have been placed 3. prescription: made subject to particular measures of regulation or social control sexual activities and characteristics vary across cultures and time within social hierarchies, roles assigned to people and the meanings attatched to them. Nowadays, constructionist perspective predominates: Interactionist and critical theory perspectives are lenses through which sexuality is usually looked at Interactionist: • address the process by which people come to understand and attribute meaning to their own and others’ sexuality. • determining what the closet means to them. Critical: • analyze the ways power influences people’s understandings and attributions of meaning • Focault: elite discourse: knowledge about sexuality that is conveyed by those in authority, and that subsequently comes to be perceived as truth • distinction between sexual behaviour and sexual identity: one can engage in a behaviour and yet not perceive that behaviour to necessarily be a part of themselves. The Sambia of New Guinea • Patriarchy: social power embedded in males • Misogyny: extreme disgust and hatred of women • “Normal” manhood: at ages 7-10, boys were removed from daily contact with females in the village and split into an all male enclave for the next 10-15 yrs • removed them from the “contamination” of the female presence • saw semen as a source of masculinity that must be transmitted to boys so they could become men • acts of fellatio between older males and younger boys • in adolescence boys would become the felatee • marriage: moved out of male enclave to have sex wth wives, continuing same-sex with younger boys. • after first child is born, man could no longer participate in same sex activities except for a short ritualized period when a new group of boys moved in • these behaviours are characteristic of being male in this society • this ritualized homosexuality has social and religious purposes illustrates normative variation (objectivist) or social construction of sexuality (subjectivist) in a dramatic way. ethnocentrism belief that one’s own culture is better than another social construction of sexuality is everywhere around us Ancient Athens • aristocratic men=highest level of power • only people considered citizens ^ • slaves, people outside of Greece, and women were not considered citizens of the state • sexual relationships with the aristocratic women they married to produce male heirs • could have sex with other somen, slaves & foreigners who were expected to service their needs • could also have sex with adolescent aristocratic boys • controlling deviance: sex was expected to be a unidirectional relationship between a superior and an inferior, not a mutual relationship between 2 equals • prohibiting sexual activities between adults and adolescents between dusk and dawn to prevent rape • anal intercourse between males was unacceptable—man was acting like a woman • only woman could be recipients of insertion • if a male prostituted himself he could no longer be a citizen—could lose his life “normal” and “deviant sexuality defined on basis of power to reproduce existing social structures Traditional Aboriginal Cultures of North America • life was viewed as consisting of 4 components 1. physical 2. intellectual 3. emotional 4. spiritual • sexuality consisted of all these as well, was perceived as a sacred gift • intended to be pleasurable • pleasure was acceptable between members of the same sex as well • wide range of sexualities and genders were normal, considered necessary • there should be homosexuals, who maintained harmony and balance in social • masculine female-bodied/ feminine male-bodied: nadleh • berdache (male prostitute) Europeans used to refer to men who assumed female roles Colonizing European cultures: • sex was for reproduction only • sex was sinful • notions of pleasure from sex were frowned upon • tried to control it by not integrating sex in social life • non-deviant sexuality only occurred between husband and wife • missionary position only • same-sex activities=unacceptable, subject to informal sanction and formal sanction • sexual unions between white men and Aboriginal women were common due to the scarcity of white women • les femmes du pays “country wives” Aboriginal women who formed relationships with early European settlers • conflicts grew between religious authorities and many Aboriginal women cause of the womens’ rejection of European ideals of male authority • Metis mixed race women, became more acceptable partners • overtime, Aboriginal sexuality became socially typed as “deviant” • overt attempts to regulate and control Aboriginal sexuality North America: 17thC-20thC • meaning of sexuality morphed from an association with reproduction towards more emotional intimacy in marriage and then to personal fulfillment for individuals ___________ • male slaves were selected as “studs” to impregnate female slaves • female slaves were expected to be continually sexually available for male members of the owner’s family • laws were instituted prohibiting Blacks from marrying outside their race ____________ • Urbanized United States, sexuality outside of arenas of marriage were considered unacceptable, both formally and informally controlled • premarital pregnancy usually resulted in marriage, often enforced • shotgun wedding used to be literal—at the barrel end of father’s shotgun once a premarital pregnancy was detected. • neighbours reported sexual improprieties • individuals could be excommunicated from the local church for deviant sexuality • sexual deviance were considered criminal and sometimes punishable by death ____________ colonial era: deviating individuals made an error in judgment—it was the behaviour rather than the person, punished by public whipping ex. but accepted back into the family, community and church. • higher socioeconomic status got less severe punishment, rich men rarely went on trial for rape • women more likely than men to be punished for sexual deviance like adultery • black men convicted of raping white women (but not black women) white men never convicted raping black women—didn’t count as rape growing Euro-Canadian and Euro-American Cultures—nature of definition and control of sexual deviance served the larger function of reminding the society that sex belonged in marriage for the purpose of reproduction • reinforced socioeconomic class, gender, and racial hierarchies through which society was constructed ____________ • end of 18thC-19thC urbanization and wage labor reduced roles of church and state as regulaters of morality • Revolutionary War and expansion of commerce started the pursuit of happiness, which infused sexual culture as well • economically based and arranged marriage declined • marrying for love • open expression of affection • Enlightenment ideology: nature and sexuality were inherently good • more emotional intimacy in marriage • role of church in regulating sexuality declined • family became private realm outside surveying public • role of women, medical profession, social reform and culture industries grew • women began reducing pregnancy by abstaining from sex and using contraception (aided by medical profession • closed energy system, overindulgence in any activity could be a danger to health • science trying to get us to have self control • self-control “the self made mad” to achieve success by not wasting bodily energy • economic changes like powerful culture industry—spread of the sex industry (early pornography) • Percieved vulnerability of young women contributed to emergence of social purity or sex hygiene movements • sex seen as heart of morality • concerns over prostitution, divorce, illegitimacy, public education, suppression of obscene materials etc. • social purity efforts directed at lower classes, who were presumed sexually depraved as well racial ideologies in sex culture: Black men=passionate, incapable of self-control • laws of regulation against them having sex with white women • dangerous and uncontrollable • liable to rape Chinese men-threat to young white woen • lured by the men’s innocent, less masculine countenance th 19 century • considerable transformation • moral entrepreneurs drew attention to sexual “diseases” ex. sodomy, homosexuality, the sex industry, female exploitation • controlling deviance grew 20 Century • focus on emotional intimacy in marriage turned towards a focus on personal fulfillment, regardless of marriage • sexual activity became accepted in casual dating, even fuck buddies • criminal justice, criminal codes regulate sexual deviance by criminalizing acts like sexual assault and public indecency • integration of sexuality into mainstream culture • use media as a tool for public service campaigns ex. promoting safe sex in magazines • pharmaceutical industry creates tv commercials for Viagra, • gay rights organizations use media for activities Consent • consent represents some form of agreement to engage in sexual activity • a defining characteristic of normal sex • disagreement on whether it’s an attitude (based on intention to engage in acts) o requires access to a persons thoughts and state of mind • or a behaviour (based on particular actions) o requires comparing actions that have or haven’t occurred in some type of agreed upon list of behaviours that constitute ‘consent’ Lack of consent • no consent = deviant, criminal act • lack of consent is considered more of an act of violence than a sexual act • date rape—is it possible for consent to be involved? • late 1990s-date rape drugs like Rohypnol and GHB escalated o odourless and tasteless, drowsiness and memory impairment o used to have sex with someone without getting consent Age of Consent sexual assault: if the complainant is under 16 they cannot give consent sexual interference: sexual touching of the body to someone under 16, cannot give consent invitation to sexual touching: asking someone under 16 to touch you, cannot give consent consent is considered possible in the above occurances if the complainant is 12 o 13, if the accused is no more than 2 years (or 14 or 15, accused less than 5 years) older than the complainant, and if the accused is not in a position of trust and authority over the complainant. bestiality in presence of a child under 16, or making them do it, is also illegal sexual exploitation sexually touching from or to someone under 18 if the accused is in a position of trust or authority over the complainant • consent is not possible in situations involving children and adults • a child is not considered capable of giving consent • deviant because it is forbidden by Criminal Code • social characteristics such as the age of the child and adult influence peoples perceptions of whether it’s deviant or normal (ex. 13 year old with a 16 year old isn’t the same as a 13 year old with a 34 year old) • teenage boys are often seen as being more capable of giving consent to adults than teenage girls are • “no means no” even within marriage in Canadian society, only 1983 was sexual assault deemed legal in marriage • 1987 sexual assault laws made gender neutral (woman could rape a man) • tremendous opposition to NAMBLA • gay rights are afraid of being associated with it: say it has no legitimate place in society, Queer or Straight • still not complete freedom in the choice of a sexual partner in contemporary north America • law—particular people being defined as unacceptbal esexual partners (age of consent, family members, bestiality, fetish objects) • you can get treatment for fetishism • outside the legal system • law does not prohibit sex with first cousins, but they still push social boundaries • students and professors are stigmatized if having sex Homosexuality • same sex relationships continue to be deemed inappropriate at both formal and informal levels • Catholic doctrine continues to prohibit homosexuality • various organizations and helping professionals claim through therapy or prayer they can make people turn straight • some priests disagree with the above positions • “put love and support for gay sons and daughters before the church doctrine” • science shows homosexuality is not a choice, and because it’s not a choice it can’t be a sin • continues to be stigmatized nonetheless • other cultures: homosexuality is a crime punished by death—mostly middleastern countries • several states in the US still define homosexual acts as crimes • Canada: 1996-Parliament voted to add sexual orientation to the Human Rights Act 2000-same sex commonlaws got the same benefits as everyone else 2005-gay marriage was legal Homosexuality and stigmatization: informal & formal • physical violence • anti-gay websites • verbal (1/4 of young adults have called gays names, highschool students hear anti gay comments and names ~25x/day) • gays and lesbians face a greater risk of criminal victimization in North America • 41% of gays have been victims of a hate related crime • 10% of hate crimes are against homosexuals, placing it in the top 3 motivations for hate crimes (following race and religion) • choice of sex partners is still regulated by the law and social processes Nature of the sexual Act “kinky”/deviant vs “normal” • stigma is no longer attatched to masturbation • growing sexual freedom • new sex positions to try • sex toys • culture is obsessed with privacy: as long as a sex act is performed by consenting adults then it’s nobody’s business • each of us might have our own idea of kinky but privacy limits social controls on kinky behaviour • we have no idea what others are doing 3 core criteria for evaluating sexuality: 1. issue of consent 2. nature of the sex partner 3. nature of sexual act peripheral criteria: locations, etc. Canada: law defines certain locations (public places) as unacceptable for sexual activities exhibitionists: people who enjoy having sex in public Frequency of sex too often vs not enough • magazine First for Women published an article on “How Much Sex is Normal” • implied that frequency outside of the numbers is ‘abnormal’ • nymphomaniac those who have sex too frequently, diagnosed with a sexual ‘addiction’ • sexual dysfunction (present term for) frigid in the past, those who had sex too infrequently • Viagra: marketed to aging men with erectile dysfunction but are used increasingly by younger men • sexual desire in women is being medicalized with the search to develop a “pink Viagra” • Viagra culture where sexual desire (for women) and sexual prowess (for men) are essential components to sexuality processes of defining, identifying, and controlling sexual deviance are not uniform, they’re part of the deviance dance Sexuality and the Deviance Dance • multiplicity of perceptions, reactions and social controls are intertwined with broader trends • ex. ritualized homosexuality of Sambians described mixed feelings about the practice, especially boys not wanting to be separated from their mothers • debate exists over o explicit sexual content o changing legislation (gay rights) o eliminating sexual abuse o pornography o what counts as a sexual act Exotic Dancing • cursory customers: visit for special occasions • regular customers: go to form emotional and erotic relationships with dancers • whether dancers are victims of violence in a patriarchal system or businesswomen who deserve the same rights as other women is a debate • victimization hypothesis: substance abuse, history of sexual/physical abuse, low self esteem, and risky sex background are common among exotic dancers o women entering the occupation because of financial desperation • 4 different types of exotic dancers: 1. survivors child abuse and felt forced into the industry 2. non conformists rebels from privileged/educated backgrounds who can leave the industry if they wish 3. dancers training in dance, enjoy artistic and creative expression of it 4. workers working class background who do it for the money o some may be perceived as victims but these women don’t consider themselves as such o the money makes it worth it o negotiate relationships with customers, interact with them to create counterfeit intimacy or they’ll face being fired o customers are active agents of their own power, use bodies to manipulate and earn more money, make up real names and life stories to keep them coming back o dancers must make decisions about own boundaries (lap dance? private room? leave the club with a customer?) o boundaries change overtime throughout the career, many dancers end up feeling violated by themselves o gap between ideal self (who they want to be) and perceived self (who they think they are) grows o hard to separate stage girl from real girl o numbing loss of sense of self pornography • explicit sex • although everyone knows hardcore porn when they see it, they see it in many different places, so no one really knows it at all” • functional definitions porn is anything sued by an individual to sexually arouse • VS catalogue then could be considered porn if used to arouse • genre definitions depiction of erotic behaviour intended to cause sexual excitement • labeling definitions anything that community members deem obscene, obscene=any publication exploiting sex, crime, horror or cruelty/violence exceptions: educational/medical purposes, artistic/literary merit • child porn any representation of someone under 18 engaged in explicit sex act or depicting sexual images • prohibiting the possession and/or selling of obscene materials was a violation of the freedom of expression o violation was reasonable in pursuit of the protection and greater good of society • biased suppression of sexual expression of minorities, such as materials portraying gay and lesbian sexuality. “community standards” result in discrimination • Supreme Court has moved from concept of “community standards” of tolerance in favour of the concept of “harm” YOUTH troubling youth young offenders, gang members, street youth • seen as threats to society troubled youth threats to themselves—ex. substance abuse, potential threats to society as well, likely to become ‘troubling’ if problems aren’t solved early enough youth culture and all youth are viewed as potential threats at some level youth transitional time in life between childhood and maturity (not a child but not yet an adult) socially constructed • criminal justice system: Canada youth are 12-17 yrs • United Nations: youth are 15-25 yrs • some are defined on their social status rather than age • anyone who has not achieved full economic status/social independence singular collective perception ­ kids are out of control ­ youth crime is expanding at a dangerous rate ­ we need to crack down on them This is a moral panic • the increase in youth crime was due to factors other than actual increases in youth crime, like changing policing and admin practices, legislation, and greater public pressures to control youth • crime is still lower than a decade earlier, and 25% lower than the peak of youth crime in 91 • adults are responsible for most crimes in everyday criminal offence - almost 85% of violent crimes - largest proportion of male offenders are 18-24, females 30-39 - only 14% of males and 15% of female offenders are 12-17 years old • no criminal offence category where youth constitutes the most offenders ­ youth are more likely to be victims of crimes than adults are (they are 61% of sexual assault victims, and 17% of robbery victims) moral panics minor incidents exaggerated by media ex. Mods and Rockers, • media distorted events and pressure was placed on law enforcement and politicians to crack down on youth crime • constructed within the media • constantly linked to particular ethnic groups and classes objective youth crime  differential association theory learning deviant techniques and motives from peers  social bonds theory bonds with others that restrain most of us from crime  general theory of crime the level of self control developed early in life  Merton’s strain theory structural inequalities in access to legitimate opportunities  differential opportunity theory ^and to illegitimate opportunities  social learning theory the system of rewards, punishments and role models we have been exposed to in life Empirical research on causes of youth crime investigates ­ family structure and style ­ roles of intelligence ­ school performance ­ peer influences parenting style characteristics include supervision, parental control and emotional ties between parent and child ­ moderate control of child’s behaviour + moderate supervision + strong, positive emotional ties = effective ­ high expectations for children ­ interest in who children are socializing with ­ rules and consequences for breaking rules all contribute to the development of a child’s internal moral standards and level of self control, both short and long-term family variables influence child outcomes, effective parenting causes children to: ­ select higher quality peers as friends ­ have stronger more emotionally intimate and trusting relationships ­ less susceptible to negative peer influences ­ parenting variables mediate negative peer influences like smoking weed and committing crimes ­ most effecting predictor of criminal activity among youth: criminal activity among friends youth gangs prevalence in the US, emphasis placed on youth gangs in the media, research done on gangs is American. Causation and Motivation: communities where legitimate opportunities to achieve social status/money are limited, gangs form as an alternative way of achieving status, acceptance and economic success status frustration theory lower class boys, if unable to live up to the middle class measuring rod would join with other similar boys in forming gangs that engage in destructive non conformist behaviour differential opportunity theory nature of the illegitimate opportunities present in the community determines the nature of gang behaviour; illigetimate opportunities result in the formation of gangs Subjective theories: analyze youth gangs as sources of identity and expressions of resistance among youth who are structurally marginalized  inteactionist perspective within a gang, people have different interests and motivations for their membership and different understandings of what it means to be in a gang  ethnographic research researchers embed themselves in gangs for extended period of times, interviewing gang members reasons for joining a gang are based on the best interest of the individual material incentive gang environment increases the chance of making money less individual effort than pursuing money independently recreation provide entertainment and a social life, serve as primary social institution in the neighborhood supplying drugs and alcohol place of refuge/camouflage seek gang membership just to be part of a group – gives anonymity, removes sense of personal responsibility for illegal activities, gives them a ‘cover’ physical protection they provide from known dangers in the neighbourhood time to resist living the lives their parents did commitment to the community join the gang in order to continue a tradition “cause everybody expects it” rational alternative for individuals given their sociocultural surroundings and networks Theories: positivist social bonds theory critical conflict theory interactionist labeling theory ­ negative affects of being labeled have an impact ­ “police called them a gang so they began to act that way” Also contributors to membership: ­ weak bonds of attatchment ­ commitment to conventional society ­ involvement in conventional society ­ beliefs that support conventional society Construction of the Gang Problem frats not considered part of the gang problem although theyre a distinct group involved in iiheft, vandalism, sexual conquest and underage drinking gang problem similar to youth crime, being portrayed as a growing problem for society overrepresentation fictional image of gangs created in media—glamourized images of gangs within rap racializing the gang problem—stories about gangs frequently including references to specific racial or ethnic groups racial and ethnic stereotyping—we don’t often hear of white gangs distortion in age inaccurate in that most Canadian Gangs have considerable age diversity, in Canada adult gangs predominate ^creation of moral panic groups who benefit from the moral panic: politicians engage in fear mongering, then vow to toughen legislation if elected interest groups who provide social programs may receive more funding by exaggerating the nature of the problem law enforcement agencies may benefit by receiving more funding as well gangs themselves may benefit from the moral panic by gaining publicity and increasing power in community Controlling Gangs Formal regulation gang awareness programs to prevent children retroactive programs designed to persuade existing gang members to leave the gang preventative programs designed to keep young children from falling into the gang life by teaching them basic life and social skills Governments provide gange related legislation and social programs (ex. job training) CSGV Community Solution to Gang Violence: group of intervention and prevention bringing together Police Service, all levels of government and parenting efforts as well as community involvement different cities have varying levels of gang activity and therefore can have stricter/lax control intertwined with youth crime regulation in general Changes in how youth crime is controlled: industrialization because of the long hours working class parents were at work their children were left more unsupervised than the middle class children under 7 were considered not able to know the difference between right and wrong, so they couldn’t be charged with criminal offences children between 7 and 14 knew the difference between right and wrong, they could be subject to the same sentence as an adult (7 year old could face life in prison or even a death sentence…) 14 and over were considered adults in the eyes of the law 1908- Juvenile Delinquents Act Canadian juvenile justice system was created and said the state would act in the best interests of children below 16 if their own parents wouldn’t ­ child welfare piece of legislation ­ young criminals could be set on the right path ­ separate detention facilities for youth 1984- Young Offenders Act based on justice principles, extended legal rights of adult offenders to youth as well (ex. due process, right to an attorney, etc), young offenders were now seen as criminals rather than delinquents ­ chronic or violent young offenders are treated more strictly ­ first time/non violent are treated via community/alternative measures Troubled Youth a danger to themselves, whose behaviour threatens their own well being, physical or mental health, and future ­ may become a danger to society as well Substance Abuse most commonly used substances among Canadian adolescents and young adults have been (in order of use) 1. alcohol 2. tobacco 3. cannabis 4. hallucinogens now: 1. alcohol 2. cannabis 3. opioid pain relievers 4. tobacco drug use overall is lower today than in the seventies Tobacco • health risks associated with smoking and secondhand smoke exposure now well established by medical research • when risks first publicized during 70's, youth smoking rates began a steady decline until about 1990, then continued to grow again • from 2000 - 2005, smoking among 12-17 year olds declined from 14%-8% and declined among uni students as well • smoking historically more prevalent among males, but pattern reversed starting in 2000 - more adolescent girls than boys becoming smokers • primary motivation for smoking comes from peer pressure and is correlated with family income, highest level of education in household, parental smoking behaviour • Federal Tobacco Act prohibits sale of cigarettes to those under 18, but enforcement has been lax for a long time o in 70's, not uncommon for children as young as six or seven to buy cigarettes from corner store for parents or siblings, enforcement much more sever now o Now, 80% of retailers complied with laws and refused to sell o Alberta only province to enforce youth under 18 caught smoking in public, subject to $100 ticket • we’ve come a long way from the days people smoked anywhere they wished • cigarette advertising restricted - media now central source for public service campaigns to reduce smoking • recent laws have banned smoking in many workplaces, shopping malls, hospitals, and restaurants • some places ban smoking in all public buildings • growing proportion of houses are smoke free (64%) o less likely to smoke in houses where it’s prohibitied (even if parents smoke youth who smoke are more likely to use other drugs, particularly marijuana - half of 12-17 year olds who smoke have used marijuana compared to only 4% of those who do not smoke (cigs) Drug Use • cannabis most widely used psychoactive drug among Canadian youth (excluding alc) o 3% have tried by 12, 38% by 15 (2004) - significant increase from 1990 (only 1/4 of grade 10's had smoked dope) • Many have tried, but do not use regularily o only 14% of adolescents who have used marijuana within past year have used 6+ times o among uni students, 51% have tried, 32% used within the last year, 17% last month • university-age youth have higher rates of illicit drug use (other than marijuana) than adults o but it’s still low - under 10% used within the last year, 2% past month use o Canadian youth more likely to use psychoactive drugs than European youth, but regular usage of it is uncommon in Canada Reason for drug use o relieve stress (escapism) o social activity o distinctive motivations: satisfy curiosity, show independence, fit in • relationship among individual's drug use and drug use among peers is strong Individual factors that influence whether substance abuse becomes problematic: genetic and environmental predispositions, degree of personal competence, connection with violent behaviour, and gang involvement Community factors include norms about substance use, prevalence of crime, price, availability of substances, economic conditions, nature of peers Family factors: parenting style, degree of parent-child emotional attachment, fam history regarding addictions School factors: academic success, reading skills, problem solving skills, participation in extracurricular activities, feelings of belonging Preventative Programs must be age appropriate and occur prior to child’s exposure to drugs—effective programs integrate youth’s own perceptions of drugs and drug use, and take their lifestyles into consideration ex. Just Say No campaign=unrealistic • only a small percentage of youth use drugs, even smaller % use regularily Alcohol Use normative behaviour for contemporary youth in Canadian society • by grade 7, over 1/4 have used alcohol within past year - increases to 83% by grade 12 • average age of first time use: 13.5, avg. age of first time being hammed: 14 • frequency of adolescent drunkenness has increased in Europe as well • alcohol industry has been widely criticized for targeting adolescents with creation of alcopops : low-alcohol bevies intended to taste like soda and other fruit flavored alcohol beverages • these types of drinks are frequently promoted in conjunction with music that is particularly popular with adolescents ---> as a result, research in UK shows 13-16 year olds greatest consumers of this kind of beverage Binge Drinking Among Uni Students Binge Drinking: five drinks in one sitting for males, four for females  86% of Canadian undergrads have used alcohol in past year - 77% past month  in US, approx. 40% of uni students are binge drinkers (have engaged in binge drinking within past two weeks) - has remained consistent since '93  the "traditional" uni student (18-23, living away from rents) much more likely to binge drink - among this group, 51% report having binge drinking within past two weeks o more common among members or fraternities/sororities, athletic groups  abstainers at uni: grown to 20%  “frequent" binge drinkers (three or more binge drinking episodes within past two weeks) has grown to 23% of uni students  binge drinking has increasingly moved off campus where it is less supervised, and social contact with non drinkers declines  individual binge drinking correlated with rate of binge drinking among peers, non binge drinkers hang out with non binge drinkers  significantly more binge drinking at beginning of year, slows down during middle portion (during exams), then increases again o prevalent during students' first year, then declines during subsequent years  research over last decade finds no evidence that university binge drinking is associated with alcohol abuse in later life - binge drinking usually ceases following graduation  of student binge drinkers, approx 30% have experienced each of the following consequences: missed classes, regretted actions while drunk, driving while drunk, forgotten where they had been or what they had done the night before  -those exposed to binge drinkers experience negative consequences as well (i.e. sleep interruptions, having to "drunk-sit" a peer, be insulted)  at a community level, binge drinking rates among this age group associated with rates of automobile accidents, deaths in automobile accidents, drownings, falls, suicides, and homicides  preventative controls: being informed of the university’s alcohol rules and penalties for violating those rules, being targeted by educational campaigns about the dangers of drinking too much and told wwhere they can seek help for alcohol problems  retroactive controls: written reprim
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