Sociology 1020 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Quota Sampling, Measure (Mathematics), Cluster Sampling

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16 Nov 2011
Introduction to Sociology
Chapter 2 - Research Methods
3 October 2011
- sociologits argue that questions about divorce, and social life in general, require
a research project of some sort
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods:
- Durkleim adpoted a position called positivism, which is a method of concluding
- positivism: when a sociologist wants to use the research methods of the natural
science (also known as quanititative)
- counting and precise measurement of objective behaviour, a limited, number of
variables, and predictions are hallmarks of a quantitative approach
- Weber believed that human behaviour is unique and more complex because of
the subjective meanings and motivations attached to it
- humans make choices based on these meanisn, making any discussion of
gender, parenthood, and work more involved than describied
- qualitative methods had to be developed, today it is called participant
- when you imagine yourself in their shoes
i) A quantitaive option: Survey Research:
- most common
- asking questions (written or oral)
a) Theories and Hypotheses:
- theory refers to a basic approach to subjects matter
- a variable to sociologists is something that takes on different values within
different groups
- if there is a relationship between to variables, then they go together
- from these theories a testable hypothesis (an educated guess) can logically be
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- it conists of an idependent (cause) and dependent (effect) variable
- axiomatic logic: If A > B and B > C, then A > C
- making connecting links between related theorectial statements
- deductive logic: the derivation of a specific statement from a set of more
general statements
b) Model:
- tey are built by combining two or more statements to fill in or extend the
explanation chain
c) Measurements:
- probably the most difficult task survey researches perform
- involves transforming the theoretical language of the hypothesis into the
operational language of measurement
Operational Defintions:
- the actual procedures used to measure theoretical concepts
- they are what researches look for or listen to in order to measure their variables
- validity: the degree to which they actually measure what they chaim to
measure, always in constructing operational defintions
- reliability: mrasures of a variable should be consistent and not fluctuate over
time or with the person using them
d) Sampling:
- selecting a subset of individuals form the population they wish to study
- the sample should be representative of the population from which it is drawn
- conclusions should be generalized beyond the group from which ths sample id
-simpler, it means that if reseachers fail to sample from some groups, they can't
say their findins hold for them
- it represents the population, "a look a like"
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