Social Stratiﬁcation (社会阶层化)
- differences in income and wealth across individuals and groups.
- in 19th century Karl Marx introduced the notion of social class and its relation to poverty
- in capitalist industrial society(资本主义社会), the bourgeoise(资产阶级) own the capital
and productive technology and control the available jobs.
- proletariat(⽆无产阶级) sell their time and labour power to capitalists to earn weges.
- capitalists to maximize proﬁts pay the workers as little as possible and sell the product
highest price possible.
- groups of people who share a common economic condition interest or relationship to the
means of production.
- false consciousness(错误的意识).
- acceptance of the dominant class.
- individualistic solution to problems.
- the poor and unemployed are blamed for their problems.
critique(批判) of Marx’s class distinctions(阶级差异)
- it’s no longer necessary to own a business to control the means of production.
- currently, the working class is international.
-difﬁcult mass mobilization of workers.
- in common, democratic society(⽆无产阶级) inequalities are based on agreement
surrounding the value of different jobs and social roles.
- functional theory of stratiﬁcation.
critique of functional theory of stratiﬁcation
it cannot explain:
- why the different between top-paid and bottom-paid workers is wide or narrow.
- why the range of salaries is much wider in the us than in other countries.(Germany
- why some people get high salaries regardless of the social beneﬁt the offer.(movie stars,
sports star, auto/bank executives)
this occurs as a result of
- unregulated market forces (ie: inadequate laws, governing the ﬁnance industry)
- tax structure (inﬂuences the redistribution of resources in volves connections between
the state and the ruling class)
- the vertical mosaic, John Porter(1965) economic social stratiﬁcation of the population.
- social mobility in capitalist societies is limited.
- there is little chance of entering the ‘upper class’
- there is litte chance of escaping the ‘poorest class’
- there is more opportunity to enter the top 10%, income and escape the bottom 10%,
though such movements are still rare. absolute and relative poverty
- absolute poverty : do not have enough of the basic needs for physical survival-
food ,shelter and access to essential health care.
- relative poverty: can survive, but living standards are below the general living standards
of the society or social group to which the belong.
deﬁnition of poverty varies by society within societies and over time
- poverty line is used to mean sure poverty.
- poverty line represents a usual standard of living and different geographic area.
measuring poverty in canada
- low-income cut offs (LICO): based on the percentage of the income devoted to daily
necessities such as food, shelter and clothing.
LICO is not equivalen to poverty line
- income thresholds, determined by family expenditure date.
- deﬁned for live categories of community size and seven categories of family size.
- vary with the size of family and size of community.
Low-income measures(LIMs): A set of ﬁgures representing 50% of the median adjusted
- actual incomes are compared with LIMs to determine whether or n