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Chapter 1

Chapter 1- sociological theory (Textbook) .docx

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Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

Social Forces in the Development of Sociological TheoryoAll intellectual fields are profoundly shaped by their social setting Abdel rahman ibnkhanldunoBorn 1332 to an educated family oHe was an ambassador chamberlain and member of the scholars counciloSpend two years in prison because he believed that the state rules were not divine leadersoWent to north Africa where he took 5 years off studying and writingoDied in 1406Political RevolutionsoWere ushered by French Revolution in 1789oCarried over to the ninetieth centuryoMost immediate factor in the rise of sociological theorizing oSociologists were interested in the negative effects of such changeoEspecially Durkheim Parsons and Come The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism oAlso as important as political revolutionoSwept through many western societys 19002000oNot one single event many interrelated developmentsoWent from largely agriculture to an industrial systemoPeople left farms to join factoriesoTransformed by a long series of technological improvements bureaucraciesoLead to labour movements various radical movements aimed to overthrow the capitalist systemoKarl Weber Durkheim Simmel Veblen The Rise of Socialism oSocialism was a set of changes aimed at coping with the excesses of the industrial system and capitalismoKarl Marx wanted socialism overthrow capitalist systemoWeber Durkheim were opposed to socialism they feared it more then capitalism Feminism oIn a sense has always been a feminism perspectiveoHigh points of feminist activity and writing were during the liberationist moments oFirst flurry of productivity in the 1780s 1790soMore organized focused effort in the 1850s Mobilization against slavery Political rights for the middle classMassive mobilization for womens suffrage Industrial and civic reform legislation early 20soFeminist concerns filtered into sociology only on the margins men went around arguments Urbanization oResult of industrial revolutionoPeople were moved from their rural homes too urban settings This is where jobs were since they were createdoUrban areas created difficulties for people to adjust to urban life oThe expansion of the cities produced endless list of urban problemsOver crowding pollution noise traffic and so forthoFirst American school of sociology was created because of its concerns for the city The Chicago SchoolReligious Change oIndustrial Revolution and urbanization had a profound effect on religiosity oSociologists brought to sociology the same objectives as they had in their religious livesComte sociology was transformed from religionDurkheim and Talcott Parsons Morality plays a key role Marx interest in religiosity but orientation was far more criticalSpenser significant component of society The Growth of ScienceoScience increasing emphasis oPermeating every sector of lifeoEnormous prestige oMany wanted to model sociology after the successful physical and biological sciences Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory oIntellectual factors cannot be separated from social forcesoPrimary focusThe Enlightenment oPeriod of remarkable intellectual development and change in philosophical thoughts oMost prominent thinkers French philosophers Charles Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau oThe influence of the enlightenment however was more indirect and negative than it was direct and positive oThinkers wanted to combine empirical research with reasonoEnlightenment thinkers wanted there ideas to be derived from the real world and be useful to the social worldoOVERALL enlightenment was characterized by the belief that people could comprehend and control the universe by means of reason and empirical research physical world was dominated by natural laws so social world must be toooCreating of a better more tradition world so rejected beliefs in traditional authority The Conservative Reaction to the EnlightenmentoWe can detect in the enlightenment critics a strong antimodernist sentimentoFrench Catholic counterrevolutionary philosophy Louis de Bonald and Joseph deMaistreoAgainst not only enlightenment but also French revolutionDe Bonald was disturbed by the revolutionary changes His view is that God is the source of societyTherefore reason which was so important to the enlightenment philosophers was seen as inferior to traditional religious beliefs God created society so people should not tamper with itOpposed anything that undermined such traditional institutions are patriarchy the monogamous family the monarchy and the Catholic Church The ConservativesoTurned away from what they concerned the native rationalism of the EnlightenmentoRegarded tradition imagination emotionalism and religion as useful and necessary components of social lifeoDisliked upheaval and sought to retain the existing orderoFrench revolution and the Industrial Revolutions saw as Disruptive forcesoEmphasize social order Enlightenment Conservative
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