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Chapter 3

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David Smith

The Seven Characteristics of Life A. Display order: all forms of life including this flower are arranged in a highly ordered manner, with the cell being the fundamental unit of life. B. Harness and utilize energy: like this hummingbird, all forms of life acquire energy from the environment and use it to maintain their highly ordered state. C. Reproduce: all organisms have the ability to make more of their own kind. Here, some of the bacteria have just divided into two daughter cells. D. Respond to stimuli: organisms can make adjustments to their structure, function, and behavior in response to changes in the external environment. A plant can adjust the size of the pore on the surface of its leaves to regulate gas exchange. E. Exhibit homeostasis: organisms are able to regulate their internal environment such that conditions remain relatively constant. Sweating is one way which the body attempts to remove heat and thereby maintain a constant temperature. F. Growth and development: all organisms increase their size by increasing the size and / number of cells. Many organisms also change over time. G. Evolve: populations of organisms change over the course of generations to become better adapted to the environment. The snowy owl illustrates this perfectly. Timeline for the evolution of major forms of life:  *when earth first formed it was too hot…it took 500 million years for earth to cool down for life to exist Primordial Earth  Oparin-Haldane hypothesis o Organic molecules that formed building blocks of life could have been formed given conditions that prevailed on primitive earth o Reducing atmosphere that lacked oxygen  Hydrogen, methane, and ammonia o Allows for synthesis of complex organic molecules Biologically Important Macromolecules  4 major types of macromolecules important for all forms of life o Nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) o Proteins o Lipids o Carbohydrates  All except lipids are polymers made up from simpler building blocks, and all are made within cells by complex metabolic pathways Miller-Urey Apparatus - Simulate conditions on primordial earth - Abiotic synthesis of
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