Chapter 11Human Development across the Life Span
Life span will be divided into four broad periods:
1. Prenatal Period
Between conception and birth
4. Adult Hood
Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
Development begins with conception( creation of a zygote).
The prenatal period extends conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy.
The course of Prenatal Development:
The prenatal Development is divided into three phases:
The germinal stage
The embryonic stage
The germinal stage is the first phase of parental development, encompassing the first two weeks
Is when a zygote is created. Within 36hours, rapid cell division begins and the zygote becomes a microscopic mass of
On the 7 day the cell mass begins to implant itself in the uterine all.
During the implantation process, the placenta begins to form.
This keeps the fetal and maternal bloodstreams separate.
Is the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second
It begins to look like a human, the organs begin to develop.
All of the basic physiological structures are being formed.
is the third stage of parental development, lasting from two months through birth.
Begins rapid bodily growth, as muscles and bones begin to form.
Has physical movement.
Sex organs start to develop during the third month
Sometime between 22 weeks and 26 weeks the fetus reaches the age of viability.
Age of viability is the age at which a baby can survive in the envent of premature birth.
Environmental Factors & Parental Development
drug use, mothers eating habits, physical health call effect the fetus.
Teratogens are any external agents, such as drugs or viruses, that can harm an embryo or fetus.
Some syndromes that can effect the fetus is like fetal alcohol syndromeis a collection of
congenital(inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy.
Maternal illness can expose to the fetal. AIDS and genital herpes are things a women can also transmit to their offspring.
Genital herpes is typically transmitted during the birth process itself when newborns come into
contact with their mother’s genital lesions.
Uterine Implantation occurs the germinal stage
Muscle and bone begin to form at the fetal stage
Vital Organs and body systems begin to form at the Embryonic stage.
The Wondrous Years of Childhood :
Begins at Motor Development
Exploring the World: Motor Development
Refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities.
Basic motor skills include, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling, walking and running
A number of principles are apparent in motor development.
The cephalocaudal trend the headtofoot direction of motor development.
Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part.
The proximodistal trend is the centeroutward direction of motor development.
Children gain control over their torso before their extremities.
Children tend to grab things by twisting their entire body but realize that they just need their arms to
reach. Maturation is the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint.
The driving force behind motor development is infant’s ongoing exploration of their world and their
need to master specific tasks.
Understanding Developmental Norms:
Developmental norms indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and
Children often don’t achieve a particular milestone until long after the average time cited in norms.
*Maturation becomes less influential and experience become more critical to motor development.
Easy & Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
Temperament refers to characteristic mood activity level, and emotional reactivity.
Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess have conducted a major longitudinal study of development of
In a longitudinal design, investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of
This study is contrasted with crosssectional design.
The crosssectional design, investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single
point in time.
Crosssectional studies can be completed more quickly, easily, and cheaply then longitudinal study.
But, in crosssectional studies, changes that appear to reflect development may really be cohort
Longitudinal designs tend to be more sensitive to developmental changes.
Longitudinal participants often drop out because they lose interest.
Thomas and chess found that temperamental individual is well established by the time the infant is
two to three months old.
They found, three basic styles of temperament that were apparent in most of the children:
40% were easy children who tended to be happy, regular in sleeping, and eating.
15% were slowtowarm up children who tended to be less cheery, less regular in their sleeping and
eating. 10% were difficult children, they tended to be glum, and irritable.
35% of the children showed mixtures of these temperaments above.
According to Chess & Thomas, a child’s temperament at three months was a fair predictor of the
child’s temperament at age ten.
Although temperament tends to be fairly stable over time, theorists emphasize that it is not
Another study by Snidmna and Arcus found that about 1520% of infants display an inhibited
temperament characterized by shyness, timidity, and wariness of unfamiliar people.
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Attachment refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their
Infants’ attachment to their mothers is not instantaneous but by six to eight months of age, they
show a preference for her and protest when separated from her.
Separation anxietyemotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people
with whom they have formed an attachment.
Theories of Attachment:
Initially, behaviorists argues that this special attachment between infant and mother develops
because mothers are associated with the powerful, reinforcing event of being fed.
Mother becomes a conditioned reinforce.
Patterns of Attachment:
Mary Ainsworth suggests that attachment emerges out of a complex interplay between infant and
Ainsworth used a method called the strange situation procedure, in which infants are exposed to a
series of eight separation and reunion episodes to asses the quality of their attachment.
Ainsworth found that these attachments follow three patterns:
Infants develop a secure attachment: they play with their mother present, become visibly upset
when she leaves.
Anxiousambivalent attachment: they appear anxious even when their mother is near and
protest excessively when she leaves, but they are not particularly comforted when she returns.
Children seek little contact with their mother and often are not distressed when she leaves a
condition labeled avoidant attachment.
Years later another condition was known called the disorganizeddisorientated attachment
these children appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid their mother and are
especially insecure. The type of attachment that emerges between an infant and mother may depend on the nature of
the infant’s temperament as well as the mother’s sensitivity.
Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high
Becoming Unique: Personality Development
Like Freud, Erikson concluded that events in early childhood leave a permanent stamp on adult
Unlike Freud, Erikson theorized that personality continues to evolves over the entire life span
A stage is developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and
certain capacities become established.
Stage theories assume that
Individuals must progress through stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the
Progress through these stages is strongly related to age
Development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behavior.
Erikson’s Stage Theory:
Erikson partitioned the life span into eight stages, each of which brings a psychological crisis
involving transitions in important social relationships.
Trust vs. Mistrust: Erikson’s first stage encompasses the first year of life, when an infant has to
depend on adult care.
If the infants basic needs are taken care of poorly, a more distrusting pessimistic personality may
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: unfolds during the second and third year of life, when parents begin
toilet training and other efforts to regulate the child’s behaviour.
The child must begin to take responsibility such as feeds, dressing and bathing.
If it goes well he or she acquires a sense of selfsufficiency.
If the parents don’t show that their proud the child may develop a sense of personal shame and
Initiative vs. Guilt: Lasting roughly ages three to six, children experiment that may sometimes
conflict with their parents rules. Over controlling parents may begin to install feelings of guilt and selfesteem may suffer.
Parents need to support their children’s independence.
In the 4 stage, age six through puberty, challenge of learning to function socially is extended
beyond the family to the br