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Chapter 4

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Global Studies
Sara Matthews

ForeignPolicy,InternationalPolitics,and Law - Policy: how a community should run and why - Domestic policy: how a national community should be governed - Foreign policy: how a country should relate to other countries  main concern; relations with allies (friends) and enemies (opponents) internationally - The Powers: o Consists of the 10 largest economies in the world: 1. America 6. Britain 2. China 7. Russia 3. Japan 8. France 4. India 9. Brazil 5. Germany 10. Italy - Great powers: (hard power definition: economic and military wealth of a nation) o Countries with the richest economies and the strongest military force within a nation o The decisions made on behalf of these countries usually have a global impact of some sort – this is because they have the ability to enforce what they want through their nation’s power/global stance – indirectly or directly bullying other nations in order to get what they want o Countries that qualify as great powers include US, China, France, Britain, and Russia 1. These nations are the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council - Middle Powers: these nations have the influencing power between great powers and small powers o These nations are usually located in the north/western hemisphere, and consists of fairly wealthy societies – they don’t usually qualify as great powers because they are lacking large population sizes, military forces, cultural impact, and ambition to move forward (these nations are a lot more relaxed as opposed to great powers) o They try to be good and active international citizens, and choose international projects where they will have the ability to make an impact and be recognized on a greater scale o Middle power nations include: Canada, Sweden, and Australia o These nations are like minded, usually easy going and supportive of great powers – sort of like the followers of the great powers 1. This may be because the middle powers are supporting a trading partner that brings in great revenue for this particular nation, or there are deals between this nation that the middle power most likely doesn’t want to break o Middle powers are the strongest and most supportive of global co-operation and international institutions like the United Nations -- they’re kind of like the cheerleader, as mentioned before, or the little child where they want everyone together and actively participating because it makes them happy or puts them in an advantageous position - Small powers: these nations can be developed or developing countries in the North or South (usually the south, because economic and military underdevelopment is more common here) o These countries usually don’t have much global impact since they don’t have a lot of power to influence others because of their weaker economic and military position o One of the main reasons why these nations don’t have a lot of power/say is because they’re really small and don’t have a large say as to what goes and doesn’t 1. Some countries include Czech Republic and Chile - Rogue Regimes: these nations are looked down upon globally since they usually cause some sort of trouble for other nations o They’re characterized as being irresponsible, unpredictable, and undisciplined actors that are bad citizens o They usually don’t want to play nice with the international neighbours which typically makes others a little uneasy, because chaos can arise out of the blue o These nations usually don’t like cooperating with anyone else – they tend to break rules, march to their own drum beat, and tend to make the world worse o There are different strategies used to approach nations like these: 1. Containment strategy: an attempt to control the outlaw country by cutting off their resources – fencing them in so that the amount of damage they can cause can be minimized 2. Positive incentives: the strategy used here is to encourage the nation to make the correct decision and to prevent them from making poor decisions in the future. Some of the strategies used here include providing more power, recognition, and force  parenting technique 3. Confrontation: this is the last strategy that is to be used since it is more aggressive. Sometimes this strategy is used directly if the situation calls for it (when it is more extreme, the UN would approve something like this); this is the most forceful strategy of them all - Failed States: in these states, a government exists but, they don’t have an implemented role; they can’t govern their people nor can they provide for them. In terms of providing for its people, this nations fails to do the most basic duties, such as: restore/keep peace, protect the nation from global threats or attacks, enforce law and order, and make sure that its citizens have access to the most basic social services. o These nations are often designated as failed states because of wars, they are usually nations that cause war too, disease/outbreaks/illnesses (people in these nations usually live under the poverty line) – these countries are usually the countries that other [wealthier] nations keep an eye out for since they are, at times, classified as a rogue nation  they’re a massive source for international concern and instability o Refugee flows: produced by fail states, these are people that are desperate to escape famine, civil wars, poverty, bloodshed/war, and look for another safer nation to live in outside of the failed nation o Failed countries can act as the home for a lot of civil wars and bloodshed or they can become havens for terrorists and criminals o These countries are also usually underdeveloped and lack social services for their citizens – they usually are in desperate need of help since a lot of their people are in serious poverty and have incurable or easily curable but deathly diseases - Soft power: persuasive power; how a nation can influence its thoughts on another nation - China’s Position: o their position is debateable since they aren’t public or democratic on how they handle information and they might’ve exaggerated/manipulated their figures Emerging Powers *think of disruptive technologies here* - Germany: common currency throughout Europe (Euro); includes a central bank, common passport, shared legislature, and labor mobility rights throughout the euro zone o They don't have the capacity to become a great power for the following reasons: not enough military strength (intentional, and not likely to change because of its history), geographically small, large expenses for rebuilding what was known as East Germany, other expenses
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