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poli science essay.odt

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Political Science
Steve Risavy

1 The role of debt and poverty plays a very seemingly unimportant role when it comes to global politics because all the mission of many high powerful states is to help the world but by helping the world benefit your own state. By doing so it creates certain organizations like the United Nations, World Bank and International Monetary fund to try and provide states with loans to help build their state. In order for to help provide for global inequity many states have to concur with their actions to act within the state of need.Also there has been other such corporations that states want to invest into therefore having to take money and help away from the less-developed countries which does not help reduce poverty by any means and these corporations are known as Nongovernmental 2 organizations(NGO) and Multinational Corporations(MNC). It is disgusting to think how poor of a job the high powerful states have done in trying to reduce debt and poverty in many less-developed countries plus at the same time in doing so fail to recognize the importance of stopping poverty in other states. By examining where money is put towards and how slowly international responses are being enforced, it shows that poverty and debt could be solved a lot faster if high economic states focused more on less-developed countries instead of other corporations in order to benefit there own state more. It is humorous to think that realistic believers sure could prove their point about how states are governed when they examine how states handle their international duties. While there is such organizations as the World bank and IMF how could they be so up and down with loaning out money and how the United Nations have made few goals relative to reducing poverty. IMF and the World Bank have made many mistakes and therefore see many states in debt to them which means are pressured by them to pay their foundations of what their terms were when they made the agreement. The overall picture is that there is more efficient ways for these corporations and foundations to succeed, there just needs to be more demand for solving poverty at the international level. In essence 1 Sens, Allen Gregory, and Peter John Stoett. Global politics: origins, currents, directions. 4th ed. Toronto: Thomson Nelson, 2005. Pp.301-305 2 Ibid at Pp.296-297 2 states at the international level needs to take a idealistic approach to their problems instead of seeming very realistic when it comes to certain agreements within amongst each other, it will lead to benefits for everyone if we can eliminate debt and poverty in the world. When it comes to debt, a numerous amount of poor countries spend twice the amount of money paying back debt then on their own healthcare and education. The idea of debt cancellation has occurred but people are worried that leaders of these poor countries will benefit themselves with this money and not put it towards funding the poorest people. Therefore some poor countries have set up separate funds to channel money freed by debt relief towards poverty reduction which is a great method in eliminating poverty. In these certain countries there has been remarkable evidence showing that debt cancellation and if you put the money in the right direction there will be positive outcomes. The international leaders should force other states to follow these certain cancellations in how they are managing their debt. To start off what has the the world done at an international level to help reduce debt and poverty around the world especially in less-developed countries. The IMF and the World Bank are the main lenders at the international level for providing debt relief for developing countries and were created in the 1950's after World war two . In 1970 poor countries started to borrow heavily off of the World Bank then in 1982 the beginning of the Third world debt crisis. Overall the 1970s and 80s there was a severe increase in the lending of the IMF and World Bank plus these loans to poor countries came with 6 restrictions. It then became to much and both organizations were falling over each other handing out new loans and the whole time assuming economic powers. In 1996 the Heavily Indebted Poor 3"Debt relief | Make Poverty History." Make Poverty History. Marc Purcell, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. 4 Shah, Anup. "Debt Cancellation and Public Pressure †”Global Issues."Global Issues : social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect us all †”Global Issues. N.p., 9 July 2005. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. 5 Sens and Stoett. Supra at Pp. 137-142 6 Shah, Anup. "Causes of the Debt Crisis â Global Issues."Global Issues : social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect us all — Global Issues. N.p., 3 June 2007. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. 3 Countries(HIPC) was launched with the mission to ensure no poor country faces a debt burden it struggles to manage. Since the launching of the Heavily In-debt Poor Countries the international financial community, including multilateral organizations and governments have joined together to reduce levels of external debt troubles from the most heavily indebted poor countries. What people don't realize is that these two organizations are actually causing more and more poverty especially in Africa although these organizations are suppose to reduce poverty, the programmes they induce cause more poverty problems. The IMF and World Bank need to realize they are not providing a positive outcome for less-developed countries so they need to make adjustments. They introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper(PRSP) approach in 1999 and these Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper's under-mind the Heavily In-debt Poor Countries initiative and the lending of new loans by the IMF and World Bank. This is the only reducing poverty plan they have brought to the table and it needs to be a more serious problem for the IMF and World Bank in order to help the international level in many areas. So why is the IMF and World Bank causing poverty to increase and the conclusion is that StructuralAdjustment Policies(SAPs) which control poor countries to ensure repayment on debt and economic restructuring. Instead what has happened is that poor countries have to focus on repayment and other economic policies instead of focusing on health, education and development.Also the Heavily In-debt Poor Countries initiative is not working the precise way they expected it to and it is actually acting the complete opposite and helping the rich countries instead. The problem with the Heavily In-debt Poor Countries is that there are conditionality on certain loans which was one of the 7 "Factsheet -- Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative."IMF -- International Monetary Fund Home Page. N.p., 30 July 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. . 9 "Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) -All Documents Sorted by Country ." IMF -- International Monetary Fund Home Page. N.p., 29 Oct. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. 4 11 first problems with poor countries and therefore leading to bigger debts and the uprising of poverty. These organizations need to begin with strategies that will ensure better outcomes for the countries with poverty and debt problems although it may have a negative impact on the organizations in the long run, the countries will be able to meet their payments eventually. One major organization that was put together for world development and peace was United Nations and they have had many projects brought into the international level in trying to reduce debt and poverty in poor countries. In April 2000, the United Nations Development Program published a report focusing on governance in poor countries to keep economic development and overcoming the selfish interests of wealthy powers in state actions behind developing nations. Still by far though the largest most efficient project the United Nations introduced was the Millennium Development Goals which are eight international development goals that all of United Nation member states have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The first goal on this list of development was eradicate extreme poverty and 13 hunger and in doing so they need to improve education, healthcare, and peace just about everywhere. All 8 of these goals are to in some specific way eliminate poverty. The United Nations need to be more demanding into trying to erase poverty in third world countries which means they may have to change there perspectives of being the nice organization and begin to act as a pro aggressive organization. Some suggestions have been made that within the next five to 10 years if a certain country has yet to eradicate poverty, the UN will be under control and eradicate poverty from within the country by force. The United Nations, IMF, and World Bank need to take a more serious approach on these issues instead of letting the poor countries grow in debt and poverty while they are sitting back and examining their plans that are continuing to cause the opposite of what they assumed was going to occur. 11 Shah, Supra at “The Heavily In-debt Poor Countries Initiative is Not Working — Global Issues." 12 "Basic Facts About the MDGs."UNDP | United Nations Development Programme. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.
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