PS276 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Dating Abuse, Equal Exchange, Mental Model

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10 Aug 2016
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PS276
Lesson 10: Intimacy (Ch. 10)
Intimacy as an Adolescent Issue
Puberty and Development of Intimacy
Changes in sexual impulses at puberty provoke interest in sex  development
of romantic relationships
Emergence of puberty and sexuality give rise to more serious, intimate
discussions
Intimate conversations shared with friends may prompt development
Cognitive Change and Development of Intimacy
Growth of social cognition  establish/maintain relationships characterized
by higher levels of empathy, self-disclosure, and empathy
Ability to look at things from another person’s point of view makes it
possible for adolescents to be intimate friend
Changes in Social Roles and Development of Intimacy
Behavioural independence during adolescence  more opportunities to be
alone with friends and engage in intimate discussion
Shared experiences and development of emotional autonomy may help give
young people and parents more of basis for friendship and communication
Changes in structure of school increases peer contact  promotes new types
of peer relationships
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Intimacy
Sullivan’s Theory of Interpersonal Development
Stages of Interpersonal Needs
As children develop, different interpersonal needs surface that elicit feelings
of security (when needs are satisfied) and anxiety (when needs are
frustrated)
Security derived from having satisfying relationships holds one’s sense of self
together
Identity and self-esteem built up through interpersonal relationships
Early frustrations and satisfactions in childhood affect later relationships and
developing sense of identity
oE.g. child who does not have strong sense of security may approach
interpersonal relationships with greater anxiety
Developmental Epochs and Needs:
oPreadolescence (8-10 to 12-14): intimacy and consensual validation
in same-sex relationships
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PS276
oAdolescence (12-14 to 17-18): sexual contact, need for intimacy with
other-sex partner
oLate adolescence (17-18): integration into adult society
Interpersonal Development During Adolescence
Need for intimacy (surfacing during preadolescence) precedes development
of sexual relationships at adolescence
oCapacity for intimacy first develops in context of same-sex
relationships
During preadolescence, children begin to focus attention on few close friends
wherein intimacy is first satisfied
oGood preadolescent friend capable of helping someone overcome
feelings of insecurity developed as a result of poor family
relationships
During adolescence, intimate relationships shift to those of other-sex people
Adolescence as time of experimentation with different types of relationships
oNormal way of handling new feelings, fears, and interpersonal needs
Attachment in Adolescence
Attachment in Infancy
Attachment: strong affectional bond that develops between infant and
caregiver
Secure attachment: healthy attachment characterized by trust
Anxious-avoidant: insecure attachment characterized by infant’s
indifference
Anxious-resistant: insecure attachment characterized by distress at
separation and anger at reunion
Does Infant Attachment Predict Adolescent Intimacy?
Some argue initial attachment relationship forms basis for general model of
interpersonal relationships employed throughout life (internal working
model)
oDetermines whether individuals feel trusting or apprehensive in
relationships and whether they see themselves as worthy of other’s
affection
Rejection sensitivity: heightened vulnerability to being rejected by others
oIndividuals who emerge from infancy with insecure attachment have
this trait
oMore likely to develop symptoms of depression, anxiety
Interpersonal development is cumulative  what happens in early childhood
affects later life
Some suggest security of attachment remains stable only in absence of major
life events that could upset course of interpersonal development
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PS276
Others argue significance of early attachment for later relationships
outweigh experience of individual later in life
Attachment in Adolescence
Adult Attachment Interview: structured interview used to assess
individual’s past attachment history and internal working model of
relationships
oCategorized as secure, dismissing, or preoccupied
oSecure: interact with mothers with more appropriate assertiveness;
more likely to have stable romantic relationships
oDismissive/preoccupied: likely to show range of emotional and
behaviour problems in adolescence
Secure attachments during adolescence  more socially competent, more
successful in school, less likely to engage in substance use, better adjusted
Adolescents’ attachment to mother typically more secure and important than
attachment to father over entire adolescent period
Insecurely attached adolescents more likely to delay moving out or return to
parents’ home
The Development of Intimacy in Adolescence
Changes in Nature of Friendship
Friendship in childhood defined in terms of companionship; in adolescence,
intimacy becomes part of definition
Judgements more psychological and less tied to concrete attributes
As adolescents’ needs for intimacy increase, so does emphasis they place on
intimacy as important component of friendship
During middle adolescence (13-15) concerns about loyalty and anxieties over
rejection become more pronounced
Girls especially show jealousy over friends’ friends
oMay start to feel more nervous about friendships because they are
beginning to make transition into other-sex relationships
Changes in Display of Intimacy
Knowing Who Their Friends Are
Gain more intimate knowledge about friends as individuals move through
adolescence, e.g. what they are proud of, what they worry about
Friendship quality increases steadily over course of adolescence  gains in
social competence  further improvement in quality of friendships
Asian Americans report more dissatisfaction with friendships
Adolescents who use Internet often for social networking are less socially
isolated than peers
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