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Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Socialization

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Kimberly Ellis- Hale

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Chapter 4- Socialization Biology, Sociobiology, or socialization  Exploration of the “nature vs. nurture debate” o Are people’s fates, likes, dislikes, and behaviors dictated by biologically inborn characteristics or are these qualities adapted based on our exposure to culture, historical period, and family and friendship groups?  Biological determinism the belief that the way we act reflects in-built biological traits such as the need to reproduce, the need to survive, ect. o North American sociologist challenged the “born in the bone” way of thinking o Argued that human behavior is a reflection of social and cultural forces o *Through the process of socialization, our beliefs, values, attitudes, and emotions are sculpted throughout our lives by our contact with parents, siblings, peers, schools, religion, media, and a wide variety of major societal institutions* (Gerth & Mills, 1953)  Some people state that we should just accept the inherent biological differences between men and women because we live in a society where our biology affects our understanding of the world Blurring boundaries between biology and sociology:  It is NOT accurate to state that biological and sociological explanations confront one another as mutually exclusive and competing view points  Humans are both free willed AND driven by culture o Human biology does establish some general parameters for human development, but that social experiences are pivotal to understanding human behaviors  Ex. Looking at feral children (kids who were brought up with almost no human contact) suggests that our biological makeup sets time limits on our abilities to acquire language and make connections  The absence of social interaction at young stages impacts the social development in future years The Social Development of the Self, Mind and Emotions  At birth we have no idea that we are separate beings  How do we develop a self? o The picture we have of how others see us, and our view of who we are  The overall process by which we learn the ways of society is called socialization Cooley and the Looking- Glass Self  1800’s- Charles Horton Cooley theorized about the emergence of human identity  Argued that the unique aspects of “humanness” is socially created o Our sense of self develops from interaction with other  Ex. Parents teach children symbols like certain sounds (Mama/ Dada) o After this first realization of the use of specific sounds for specific people the child can then move on to more complex interactions  Looking Glass Self= 3 steps o Imagine how we appear to others around us o Interpret their reactions o Based on our interpretations and reactions we develop feelings and ideas about ourselves Mead and Role Taking:  Symbolic Interactionist- George Hebert Mead  Play is a critical element in the development of a self o Children learn taking the role of the other  putting themselves in someone else’s shoes to understand how they feel and anticipating how that person will act  Mead suggests that taking the role of the other is an essential part of learning to be a full-fledged member of a group and of society  Young children are only able to act out the roles of their significant others o Mother, father, sister, brother (playing house)  When they begin to age they are able to take on the roles of larger numbers of people  Mead gave the term “generalized other” to this perception of how people in general think of us  3 Stages of learning  learning to take the role of the other 1. Imitation/preparatory stage: Children under 3 can only imitate others. Do not yet have a sense of self as separate from others. Soon children learn the differences in gender. 2. Play stage: During this stage, from about age five to six, children tend to take on the role of specific people. Girls=mother or teacher whereas boy= hockey players and firefighters. Caregivers directly and indirectly convey the message that boys and girls are profoundly different. 3. Game Stage: This stage begins roughly at age 7 and lasts through to puberty. An individual must be able to take on multiple roles. (Used the analogy of a baseball game- you cant just know what to do when you get up to bat but you must also know what to expect form other players in the game)  Looked at established gender roles  Women came to embody habitus- they embrace a set of skills and a way of looking at the world that reflects the hierarchical social structures they inhabit Freud, the development of personality and civilizing the “id”  Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis a technique for treating emotional problems through long term intensive exploration of the sub conscious mind  Every child is born with an id (his term for inborn drives for self- gratification)  Id of a newborn is evident in its cries of hunger or pain  Pleasure seeking id operates throughout life needs of attention, safety, food, sex, aggression ect.  The ego is the balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it  The ego also serves to balance the id and the superego o The third component of the personality more commonly known as the conscience o It represents culture within us o Norms, and values we internalize from our social groups o Superego gives us the feelings of guilt, or shame when we break social rules, or pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them  He started that civilization must suppress its impulses Goffman and the Presentation of the Self  Erving Goffman  work provided a provocative new approach to understanding the emergence and the presentation of the self  He developed dramaturgical analysis of human interactions o Used the image of a staged drama as a way to analyze everyday life o We learn to navigate a backstage (where we rehearse our performances) and a frontstage (where we perform our roles)  There was an emphasis on symbolic meaning- how we dress, stand, and gesture Socialization into Gender  Canadian society channels behavior through gender socialization  Reinforcing and expecting different attitudes because we are male or female  It is a univer
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