Textbook Notes (369,203)
Canada (162,462)
Sociology (220)
SY203 (3)

Chapter Notes

10 Pages

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Darryl Burgwin

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SY203 Chapter Notes Chapter 1  Great Transformation o Karl Polanyi o Massive social change which took place in Europe between 1750 and 1920  French Revolution 1789 o Asserting the reality of individual rights and freedoms, the revolution shook individuals in their political rights and social foundations o Economic and political consequences of the revolution rocked the foundations of feudal society in its social and economic existence o The political and social changes of the revolution shook the framework of philosophy in its inward looking and introspective existence  George Hegel o Response to the revolution led to the development of an autonomous social theory distinct from philosophy in itself o Revolution changed the way thought understood reality and history o Make political functions the focus of social and historical development o His philosophy was forward looking in its focus on individual freedom and self- realization o First to conceptualize t different stages of society as distinct social forms which followed a pattern of social and historical development o Marx and Engles turned his philosophy into social theory  England o 1830 o Industrial capitalism had replaced the old feudal economies of the preceding period and Adam Smith had laid the foundation for the first study of capitalism making him the founder of modern political economy o Was the workshop of the world, industrial centre o Land began to be privatized o Rise of new working class of wage labourers who were forcibly separated from the land as a primary means of economic survival  Durkheim o broke away from Compte o two great currents of social life  Forms two distinct types of structure  Lead to structural concepts began to be more formally incorporated into the study of society o Structural  Defined social thought as different from historical thought  Family of perspectives  Conceptualise society as a structure of social fields which exist outside the individual  Max Weber o Fourth shift in direction of modern social theory o Overall economic theory of organization est the study of Capitalism as a central focus of modern social theory o Theory of society only obtained by looking as the casual influences of various social spheres, departments of life o Looked at religion as well o Social sphere o First to challenge Marx  Modern Social Theory o Discipline by undertaking the study of the changes that were taking place in the structure of social institutions during the transition from feudal society s The Central Subject Matter of Social Theory  The Political Change, the Feudal Dynamic and the Revolution in France o Feudal society  System of land holding that was entirely rural  Agricultural economy geared to the production of a food supply  System of social relations centering on class distinctions between landholder and serf  Serfs occupied agricultural holdings comprised of small undertakings in which they cultivated land and produced their economic livelihoods  Corvee rights  Rights of landholder o compel work from serfs and to specify the form and the amount of labour to be provided  Serfs legit subordinated to the lord through a system of legal and social distinctions derived from the class divisions of feudal society  rights of landholder to obtain control over agricultural production  right to impose economic exactions on the serf  taxes, dues, fees  tendency to develop a fixed social hierarchy and a system of social and class distinctions which were backed up by legal and religious sanctions o Revolution o Declaration of the Rights of man  All are born free o Two main shifts  Transformed the existing class structure of feudal society and leg to the decline of class privilege and a change in the relations of subordination which had existed up until that time  Political and legal reforms brought by change from a political aristocracy based on sovereign authority to a democratic republic based on the rights of citizens  Economic Changes and the Development of Capitalism o Large scale social disruption o Industrialization  Land enclosures which began to occur, private property over feudal land  Peasants evicted, move to cities, work for wage, unable to employ the means of production  New institutional alignments centre on work, family, and school instead of monarch, church and aristocracy  Guilds  Association of craftsmen regulate trades  Lose power giving way to Capitalism  Central market economy and system of exchange  The dual movement of Individuals Individualisms o Process that creates privatization in the form of the detached isolated individual, whose relation to society took on a new form in the modern industrial economies o After revolution legal rights were assigned to ppl began to dissolve the old propriety corporate bodies powers inherent in o Guilds and estates abolished, rights entitled to the individual not group o Old collective participation in economic life suddenly shifted to the detached isolated individual who economic livelihood was their own private responsibility Modern Social Thought and the Nineteenth Century Theories of Knowledge  Idealism o Inquire into the realm whose existence could only be grasped by theoretically activity, rather than by straightforward observation o Socrates  Ideal funcitons  Involves principles, practices, and standards of society which related to the system of human conduct and thus involves the social good Chapter 3 Emile Durkheim  Influenced by Charles Renouvier and Emile Boutroux  Works: the Division of Labour, The Rules of Sociological Method , and Suicide  Best known for founding sociology as a discipline and for defining the boundaries of its subject matter  August Comte o Positivism  Led to his scientific approach  Law of three stages equated science with historical development o Adoption of social realism  Perspective which takes as its central point of departure the view that external social realities exist in the outer world and that these realities are independent of the individual`s perception of them  External framework of society can be treated as if it were made up of strucutres and mechanisms that constitute realities as substantial and definite as those of the psychologists or biologist  Accept the view that the external realities of society have powers that are capable of exerting restraint and that these retraints create effecst that are visible in people`s actions when external social realities impose limits on action in the form of duties and obligations o Debate around the problem of individualism that were common  opposition to Utilitarian theory  they ignore the larger system of social rules acting as restraints  individuals are neither separate from society nor studied independently  exist outside the individual o Influences derived from the political writings of TH, JJR,  TH:  Original state of nature  Exists when ppl live in a condition in which laws and government are absent  No restraints on people  Durkheim believes that restraint is a product of individual will added to social reality  Externally imposed  JJR  Collective structure of society was separate from the individual and thought that it could be studied as a reality in its own right and in this way he thought it was independent of the individual The Division of Labour in Society Central Thesis and Definition of the Division of Labour  The Division of Labour in Society  Developed a way of thinking that was new to society o Social vs. economic DoL o Wanted to make inquiries into the nature of the social links connecting ppl to society and the social bonds which connect ppl o Wanted to examine the specific origin of the social links and bonds in order to see in what way they were related to the overall system of social cohesion o Wanted to look at the extent to which the system of social links change as the structure of society became more complex and subject to changes  Division of Labour o Process of dividing up labour among ppl in a group so that the main economic and domestic tasks are performed by different people for the purposes of the collective maintenance o Social  Social links and bonds which develop during the process that takes place in societies when many individuals enter into cooperation for purposes of carrying out joint economic and domestic tasks  Links and bonds formed system of attachment to society refered to as social solidarity  Links of dependency  Bonds of obligation o Economic  Adam Smith  What happens in the production process when labour is divided during manufacturing  Increase in productivity that takes place when production tasks are divided between workers  Social Solidarity and Social Cohesion o Social solidarity  System of social bonds which link ppl directly to the wider society  System of social relations link ppl and society as a whole  System of social interchanges which go beyond the brief transactions  Describes the intensity that exists in attachments  W increased autonomy based on law recognizing rights and freedoms
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