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Chapter 8

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BIOL 1000
Angelo Belcastro

Biology Chapter 8: Cell Cycles CHAPTER 8 CELL CYCLES Cell Cycle in Prokaryotic Organisms  Binary Fission  B period  Splitting and dividing in two  C period  DNA synthesis-replicaiton  D period  Membrane pinches together btwn two forming 2 cells Replication  Circular, double stranded helical structure of DNA Replicated Chromosomes  Replication of bacterial chromosome commences in a region called origin of replication Interphase Extends from the End of One Mitosis to the Beginning of the Next  Cell grows and replicates DNA, to prepare  G1  Cell makes RNA’s, proteins  Centrioles form  S phase  Cell duplicates chromosomal proteins and DNA  G2  Cell growth  Synthesis of proteins and RNAs Mitosis Prophase  Repilcated chromosomes begin to condense  RNA synthesis is shut down  Miotic spindles form Prometaphase  Nuclear envelope has broken down now  Spindle microtubules attach to centromeres of chromosomes  Kinectochore binds each chromatid at the centre Metaphase  Spindle microtubules move chromosomes into centre, to line up with metaphase plate Anaphase  Sister chromatids separate, moving to opposite poles Telophase  Spindles disassemble  Chromosomes decondense  Nucleoulus appears, and RNA synthesis resumes  Nuclear envelope reappears Cytokinesis  Division of cytoplasm  Animals  form furrow  Plants: Cell wall Furrowing  Microtubules at midpoint stretches laterally  Band of microfilaments develops  Microfilaments constrict together and constrict cell Cell Plate Formation  Layer of microtubules at midpoint in vesicles made by ER and glogi  They line up, and fuse together where the contents create a new cell wall Formation And Action of Mitotic Spindle  In S phase, Centrioles get replicated along with DNA  Flowering plants do no
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