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BIOL 1001 (162)
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Chapter 20

Chapter 20

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 20 Notes 201 Recognition of Evolutionary Change Natural history the branch of biology that examines the form and variety of organisms in their natural environment Aristotle believed that both inanimate objects and living species had fixed characteristics and created a ladderlike classification of nature from simplest to most complex thIn the 14 century it was thought that everything had been created by a god that species could never change or become extinct and that new species could never arise Natural theology was a belief that knowledge of God may be acquired through the study of natural phenomen and sought to name and catalogue all of Gods creation Careful study of each species would identify its position and purpose in the Great Chain of Being Scala Naturae Biogeography the study of the geographic distribution of plants and animals Comparative morphology analysis of the structure of living and extinct organisms GeorgeLouis Leclerc noticed the existence of body parts with no apparent function and proposed that some animals must have changed since their creation Vestigial structure An anatomical feature of living organisms that no longer retains its function but may have been useful for ancestors of a species Cuvier developed the theory of catastrophism the theory that earth has been affected by sudden violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope Local organisms would die form a fossil layer and then somewhat different species would recolonize the area until the next catastrophe Lamarck proposed the first theory of biological evolution and stated that there is a metaphysical perfecting principle that caused organisms to become better suited to their environment become more complex and move up the ladder of life Principle of use and disuse something used more often will be larger like a muscle and something not will be smallerInheritance of acquired characteristics changes that an animal acquires during its lifetime are inherited by its offspringHe theorized that an animal that stretches their legs or uses their muscles to enlarge them will pass this on to the offspring who will make their legs even longer or muscles bigger
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