Final exam chapter 8 notes

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24 Mar 2012
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18.1) What is in a name?
Speciation: - the process of species formation
18.2) Definition of species
Biological species concept defines a species as a group organisms that
can successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring
The phylogenetic species concept defines a species as a group of
organisms bowd by a unique ancestry
The ecological species concept defines a species as a group of organisms
that share a distinct ecological niche
Hybridization: when 2 species interested and produce fertile offspring
A sexually producing population had a higher frequency of mutations
mitochondrial protein loding genes then sexually reproducing
populations
18.6) geographic variation
When geographically separated populations of a species exhibit dramatic, easily
recognized phenotypic variation, biologists may identify them as different
subspecies which all local variants of species
18.6a) Ring species : genes flowing between some populations
Some plant and animal species have a ring. Shaped a geographic
distribution that sussonds in a heritable trait
These so called ring species can exchange genetic material directly
but gone flow between distant populations occurs only through
intermediate populations.
18.6B) Cliant variation: change along a gradient
When a species is distributed over a large environmentally diverse
area. Some traits may exhibit a pure pattern of smooth variation
along the geographic gradient
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