BIOL 1500 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Archaea, Protist, Prokaryote
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Chapter 1: What is Science and
•Apply the scientific method to everyday situations. Design critical experiments to test hypotheses
and discuss the importance of well-designed and controlled experiments.
oDistinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.
oDistinguish between a scientific theory and a hypothesis.
•Describe the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere, noting the
interrelationships between levels and discuss how hierarchical organization and evolution tie
together all major themes in biology.
•Describe the five characteristics of all life.
oExplain why cells are a special level in biological organization.
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1.1 What Is Life?
The cell is the basic unit of life; every organism, or living individual, consists of one or more
One of those biochemicals, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is the informational molecule of life.
Characteristics of Life: A Summary
Organization Atoms make up molecules, which make up
cells, which make up tissues, and so on.
Energy use A kitten uses the energy from its mother’s milk
to fuel its own growth.
Maintenance of internal constancy Your kidneys regulate your body’s water
balance by adjusting the concentration of your
Reproduction, growth, and development An acorn germinates, develops into an oak
seedling, and, at maturity, reproduces sexually
to produce its own acorns.
Evolution Increasing numbers of bacteria survive
treatment with antibiotic drugs.
A. Life is Organized
-Just as the city where you live belongs to a county, state, and nation, living matter
also consists of parts organized in a hierarchical pattern. At the smallest scale, all
living structures are composed of particles called atoms, which bond together to form
molecules. These molecules can form organelles, which are compartments that carry
out specialized functions in cells (note that not all cells contain organelles). Many
organisms consist of single cells. In multicellular organisms such as the tree,
however, the cells are organized into specialized tissues that make up organs such as
leaves. Multiple organs are linked into an individual’s organ systems.
-A population includes members of the same species of organism living in the same
place at the same time. A community includes the populations of different species in a
region, and an ecosystem includes both the living and nonliving components of an
area. Finally, the biosphere refers to all parts of the planet that can support life.
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