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Week 12 pt2.docx

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BIOL 3120

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1. The early response occurs within minutes of allergen exposure and results from the release of histamine (vasodilation), leukotrienes (bronchoconstriction), and prostaglandins (mucus secretion) from local mast cells. In the late-phase reaction, cytokines released from mast cells, particularly TNF-α and IL-1, increase the expression of cell adhesion molecules on venular endothelial cells, thus facilitating the influx of neutrophils, eosinophils, and TH2 cells that characterizes this phase of the response. Eosinophils play a principal role in the late-phase reaction. Eosinophil chemotactic factor, released by mast cells during the initial reaction, attracts large numbers of eosinophils to the affected site. This leads to degran
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