FILM 2401- STUDY NOTES
Advertising is not just about giving consumers relevant information about the uses and
qualities of something they are planning to purchase. It also offers a glimpse of a
utopian world where all our desires are met and all of our fears are allayed, but only
The qualitative and quantitative change in the operations of advertising coincides with
andisconnectedtotherise ofindustrialsocietyandtherise ofmodern corporation.
Until recently, almost 100% of all the revenue for radio and television broadcasting
came from advertising. Even public television is dependent on advertising to varying
Television isstillthemostimportantplace for advertiserstoplace their ads.
Advertiser- Broadcaster Relations
The first broadcast ad was believed to have come to radio in 1922 when WEAF in New
York City sold a 15-minute spot to the developer of an apartment complex. The idea of
using radiofor commercialpurposesbecame areality.
However, instead of using long pitches like this first ad, broadcasters and advertisers
realizedthat weaving the adintoaprogramofentertainmentwasmuchmore effective.
The idea of a sponsor putting together an entertainment program and then buying
airtime on the radio stations took hold. When television appeared in the 1940s, this
The relationship between advertisers and television broadcasters determined the way
television showswere produced.Thisisstillthewayitworkstoday.
After the “Quiz Show Scandal,” the networks moved to a business model where they
sold sixty-second spots to numerous sponsors and made many television shows
themselves. In 1971, the short thirty-seconds spots became the industry standard, and
because of anti-trust litigation the networks were forced to get out of the business of
making mosttelevision shows.
Television ads can be sold as national and local spots and can vary in cost depending on
a number of factors: the time of day, the time of year, the size of the audience, the
audience demographic and what rank the network or local station is at in relation to its
competitors (for example, the number one network usually commands a premium for
Advertising agencies have played a major role in bringing advertisers together with
television station operators. For their clients they provide: market research, to identify
potential promotional strategies; creative development, to produce advertising
campaigns; media buying,to place adswithin media;and account services,tomanage
The cost of ads varies widely; national campaigns can be very expensive, utilizing the
same high production values associated with Hollywood films. Ads costing $500,00 to
one million dollars for a thirty-second spot are not uncommon at the upper end of the
In addition to the cost of making the ad, the advertiser, through the ad agency, then
has to pay to have it aired during a television program it thinks will be watched by the
audience itistrying toattract.
Top rated shows and watched by a lot of young people usually means the thirty-second
spotismoreexpensive. The rates for ads are determined by the ratings system. The A. C. Neilson Company has
had a virtual monopoly on the measurement of the size and characteristics of the
audience for various television programs. The company measures the audience in
various ways (by size, demographics, etc.) and then sells this information to the ad
agencies and television networks that use this information to negotiate and set the
ratesfor advertising on varioustelevision programs.
The reason for rapid growth are connected to a number of important developments
that took place in American society in the late 19 and early 20 centuries; the rise of
modern advertising is intertwined with the rise of modern capitalism and mass
Advertisers also designed their campaigns to reach a broad public. An “advertising
industry” came into existence for the first time in