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Jan 23 – American Public Broadcasting.pdf

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York University
FILM 2401
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

January 23 –American Public Broadcasting
 Case Study:American Public BroadcastingAbroad - institutions like voice of america, armed forces, radio and television and radio free Europe were designed to provide information, entertainment, diplomacy and propaganda to foreign audiences and to american service personnel abroad - foreign broadcasting system began at the start of ww2 when owi began renting privately owned short wave radio transmitters and building new ones - voice of america - voa broadcasted in 46 languages by 1943 - cut back end of ww2 but high again beginning in cold war - overseen by us department of state - 1953 part of us information agency and remained until usia dissolved in 99 - now run by broadcasting board of governors (bbg) - designed to appeal to elites of various targeted countries - hope to appeal to countries decision makers in hopes they will be convinced to support american objectives - cia also helped to fund a number of broadcasting networks —radio free europe and radio liberty - broadcasted to europe, soviet union, middle east and central asia - now us congress funds them - radio marti designed to beam propaganda to the island of cuba to undermine popular support for castro government Readings: Textbook Chapter 14 - commercial television became the standard for the industry and the owners of private broadcast television stations and networks lobbied hard against any state intervention in the media industries - strong ally of american government - american state didn't promote educational television and discouraged it - school and colleges no longer supported tbs in the 40s - 1950s F.C.C set aside a few unallocated frequencies - a small number of educational stations reemerged in the late 50s - until 62 were funded by various charities at which time the federal government started giving them grants - newtown minnow was called a vast wasteland - once the initial novelty of television had begun to wear off,some audience members began to admit more critical attitudes towards the medium had some even begun to tune out - party of the 1960 rebellion against the status quo included an oppositional attitude towards both television and consumerism - 1952-1967 ford foundation and later the corporation for public broadcasting funded the production and distribution of educational programming—especially children's programming and public affair tv shows - 1963 a network called national education television (NET) was created and funded by the ford foundation - 1967 - congress passed public broadcasting act giving non commercial broadcasting a national mandate for the first time - power was decentralized so it could not become a 4th networking in competition with the big 3 - based on eventual creation of whole series of competing local stations governed by 2 overlapping government bureaucracies: public broadcasting service (PBS) and corporation for public broadcasting (CPB) allocating undoing to all the various affiliates - initially cpb oversaw operations of net and then net folded into pbs in 1970 - cpb oversaw operations of pbs and was also responsible for allocating funds for a public ration network (national public radio—npr) in 1971 - corporation for public broadcasting was set up to distribute and administer funding to local stations to produce programming that fit into this educational mandate - few stations had resources to create their own programming - this is why public broadcasting service was created in 1970 —- to distribute programs to local stations that could not afford to make their own - for funding they hoped television set owners would pay an annual license fee to fund the cost of the operations (like done in england of the bbc) - us government hobbled bps so it wouldn't be a serious competitor to commercial networks - the us government wouldn't adopt the use of a licence fee to fund public television despite recommendations - instead, the fledging service would bc dependent on congress biannual decision of exactly how much support to give to public radio and tv - nixon and reagan both cut government funding for public television regularly and increase reliance on corporate underwriting and increasingly more timid programming - american public television had been chronically underfunded since its inception - gets its money from private sponsors (donatio
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